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Transcript of Reproductive Technology
Testosterone is primarily a male hormone as they produce twelve times more than females (on average 6-8 mg daily). Testosterone is specifically designed for:
-Determining the gender of a baby -Maintaining sex drive -Starting and maintaining the male characteristics:
-body shape Odour Dominance Physical and emotional strength Body and facial hair Muscle growth It can be found in the testes (85-90%) and in the adrenal glands (10-15%), Deepening of voice/ voice breaking DNA & Genes Intra- Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Sperm Production Sexual Performance It is produced when somebody feels aroused sending signals to the hypothalamus which regulates the body’s hormonal activity. This sends chemical signals to the pituitary gland where a substance called GnRH is released into the bloodstream where the male testes start the production of testosterone. How it's produced and for women the adrenal glands and ovaries. Oestrogen Oestrogen is used to stimulate cell growth and is one of the two main sex hormones in women and even though it’s present in males and plays in important role in the maturation of the testes, there’s a higher amount in women. Oestrogen is produced in the ovaries. In women Oestrogen is specifically designed for Progesterone Progesterone mainly concerns the reproductive system. The other main sex hormone in women is progesterone but is also essential for men. In men it’s found in the testes and adrenal glands and in the ovaries Other main sex hormone in women In men it can be used to:
- Counteract the effects of oestrogens on the body.
- Preserve their masculinity.
- Decrease the threat of developing osteoporosis, arthritis and prostate cancer.
- Regulate temperature. Progesterone in women plays a different role as in men it doesn’t vary the cycle like it does in women. It’s produced in the adrenal glands, placenta and ovaries In women it is used for:
Regulating the monthly menstrual cycle.
-Growth of milk glands during pregnancy.
-causes the endometrium to secret proteins for a fertilized egg to receive in the second half of the cycle.
-higher levels of progesterone enhances ovulation during pregnancy. Oxytocin Oxytocin is a naturally occurring chemical which is produced mainly in the hypothalamus where it’s released into blood via the pituitary gland or to other parts of the spinal cord and brain where it regulates behaviour due to ‘arousal level’ of the nervous system. It's stored in the pituitary gland It is referred to as the 'Love Hormone' as it has various roles during pair bonding, anxiety and social recognition. It has a number of functions (especially for labor and delivery) including…. Acting as a meuromodulator (nerve modulator) for the brain. Roles in sexual reproduction especially during/ after child birth. Facilitating birth (rapid and efficient delivery) and breastfeeding promotes milk after birth Has some effects on behaviour Conception Pregnancy Development of foetus first Trimester The Process of Conception Ovulation Ovulation occurs each month in the women’s ovaries:
•First a group of immature eggs start to develop in small fluid filled sacks called follicles. Usually one follicle (the “dominant follicle”) is chosen to complete the development
•It suppresses the growth of all of the other follicles, which stop growing and degenerate.
•Then the egg inside breaks out of the follicle and is released, this is called ovulation.
•This process usually occurs mid way through a women’s menstrual cycle. Development of Corpus Luteum After ovulation has occurred, the ruptured follicle develops into the corpus luteum. The Corpus luteum then secretes two hormones
To prepare the endometrium (lining of the uterus) for the embryo to implant itself by thickening it. Release of Egg • Moved by thin hairs (cilia) the egg travels to the fallopian tubes
• It remains here until fertilisation, where a single sperm will penetrates the egg
• The egg can be fertilised up to about 24 hours after ovulation.
• Usually ovulation and fertilisation occur about two weeks after the last menstrual period. Menses If the egg is not fertilised it degenerates along with the corpus luteum, removing the high level of hormones. This results in the shedding of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) causing menstrual bleeding. Then the cycle repeats itself. Fertilisation If sperm meets and penetrates the mature egg after ovulation it will fertilise it. Changes occur when the sperm fertilises the egg, such as change in the protein coating around it to prevent other sperm from entering. At the moment of fertilisation the babies genetic make-up is complete, including its sex. The mother can provide only X chromosomes (she's XX), if the egg is fertilised by a Y sperm the baby will be a boy (XY); if the egg is fertilised by an X sperm the baby will be a girl (XX). Implantation • Within 24-hours the egg begins to divide rapidly.
• For 3 days it remains in the fallopian tube.
• The fertilised egg (zygote) slowly moves through the fallopian tube to the uterus continuously dividing as it goes.
• Its next job is to implant in the endometrium.
• First the zygote becomes a solid ball of cells, then a hollow ball of cells called a blastocyst.
• The blastocyst breaks out of its protective covering before implantation
• An exchange of hormoens helps the blastocyst attract when contact is established with the endometrium.
• The endometrium then becomes thicker and the cervix sealed by a plug of mucus.
•In three weeks the blastocyst cells has begun to grow as clumps of cells, the baby's first nerve cells have already formed.
•The developing baby is called an embryo from weeks 1 to 8 and a fetus from week 9 till birth. Pregnancy Hormones • From the time of contraception the hormone Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) is present in your blood.
• It is produced by the cells that form the placenta.
• In a pregnancy test this hormone is the one that is detected but it can take three to four weeks, since the first day of the last menstruation, for the levels of hCG to be high enough to be detected by pregnancy tests.
• There are three, three month development stages of pregnancy called trimesters, there are distinct changes that occur in each stage. hCG structure Contraception Method: The Pill
It is a daily pill that contains hormones that prevent pregnancy, hormones are chemical substances that control the functioning of the body's organs, in this case, the hormones in the Pill control the ovaries and the uterus. What is it? Most birth control pills contain a combination of the hormones estrogen and progesterone to prevent ovulation. If a women doesn’t ovulate she can’t get pregnant because there are no eggs to be fertilised.
Also the Pill thickens the mucus around the cervix, this makes it hard for sperm to enter the uterus and reach any eggs that could have been released. The pill also contains hormones that can affect the lining of the uterus, this makes it difficult for an egg to attach to the wall of the uterus.
Birth control pills work best when taken every day at the same time even if there is no intension to have sex. This is especially important with progesterone-only pills. It is also advised that for the first 7 days of taking the Pill, that an additional form of contraception be used, such as condoms. How does it work? How well does it work? These can improve over the first 3 months, if side effects occur usually a doctor will prescribe a different brand of Pill.
The Pill also can have good side effects such as:
• It usually makes periods lighter
• reduces cramps
• is often prescribed for women who have menstrual problems.
• Often improves acne
• have also been found to protect against some forms of breast disease, anemia, ovarian cysts, and ovarian and endometrial cancers.
The Pill is an effective form of birth control but even missing one day increases the chance of conceiving. Each year 8/100 couples who rely on the Pill will have an accidental pregnancy. This is an average figure, the chance of getting pregnant is dependent on whether the birth control pills are taken each day at the same time.
Generally the success of the Pill depends on a few things:
• Health conditions a person may have
• If they are taking any medications or herbal supplements that might interfere with the Pill, e.g. antibiotics or a herb like St. John's wort can interfere with the effectiveness of the Pill.
• Whether the person remembers to use them correctly all the time.
The birth control pill doesn’t protect against STD’s, condoms must be used along with the Pill to protect against STD’s. The Pill is a safe and effective form of contraception. There are non to very few side effects usually, the side effects that can occur in some women include:
• irregular menstrual bleeding
• nausea, headaches, dizziness, and breast tenderness
• mood changes
• blood clots (rare in women under 35 who don’t smoke) Contraception Method: The Male Condom What is it? How does it work? Protection Against STDs Possible Side Effects How well does it work? The male condom is a thin cover for the penis during sex and it is made of:
• Rubber (latex)
• Plastic (polyurethane): alternative if allergic to latex
Male condoms differ greatly in
• Amount of lubrication
Protection from infection is achieved by the condom due to the covering of the penis which prevents direct contact with the vagina, it protects from pregnancy by collecting the semen, preventing it from entering the vagina, also uses spermicide which eradicated sperm. It is used by rolling it over the erect penis. The is removed after sex but it must be removed before the erection ends or sperm can leak out. A condom can be used once only then it must be disposed of properly. The condom is the best form of contraception at reducing the risk of STD’s during sex. It is also very effective in preventing pregnancy when used correctly. The chances of becoming pregnant while using a latex condom are
•Typical use: 14 percent
•Perfect use: 3 percent •The male and female condoms are used together
•Condoms shouldn’t be used in conjunction with oil-based lubricants, e.g. petroleum jelly, Vaseline, or mineral and vegetable oil. These lubricants can damage the condom or increase the risk of breakage •Condoms especially latex condoms should be kept away from the heat, heat can weaken them or cause them to break
•Some condoms have an expiry date, after which they are too weak to use
•Condoms may break when put on incorrectly. The success of a male condom can be reduced when: Structure DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a long thin molecule made up of Nucleotides, which are made of a sugar, a phosphate and also a base. The arrangement of elements along this helix is a genetic code. The DNA makes copies of itself during the reproduction process. DNA consists of two strands, a double helix with the nucleic acids on the inside of the molecule. When there is a matching pair of nucleic acids it’s known as a base pair. The structure of DNA consists of two sugar- phosphate backbones and the sugars are attached to the nucleic acids. The Nucleic acids are paired Adenine with Thymine, and Guanine with Cytosine. Adenine and Thymine must always be together and Guanine and Cytosine must always be together. Function The function of DNA is to store genetic information which is used guide the cells in making new proteins that determine all of our biological traits that get passes from generation to generation. E.g. determining eye colour, height, gender. The genetic information is also used to control functions, development and repair of the body. The genetic information is found in chromosomes. Each person has 23 pairs of chromosomes any less or any more affects the way they develop. DNA is also used as a long term storage device to store genetic instructions. These instructions must be correct so the DNA can make an exact copy of itself. Down Syndrome Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder which is caused by a mistake in cell division, resulting in an extra chromosome being created; affecting your skill level and physical growth with can range from mild to moderate. Cause of Down syndrome A baby receives 46 chromosomes from the parents 23 from each resulting in the baby having their genetic information, which determines everything from how tall they will be to the colour of their hair. Down syndrome is when the baby receives an extra chromosome from a strange event that occurs in the formation of reproductive cells that results in the baby’s genetic information being changed.
There are three genetic variations that cause Down Syndrome, most of the reasons are from trisomy 21, which is where each cell in the body has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual amount two. The second variation is when only a few cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21 resulting in downs syndrome. The last genetic variation is when a section of chromosome 21 is attached to another chromosome during or before conception resulting in an extra chromosome which results in the baby having Down syndrome. Effects of Down Syndrome Effects of Down syndrome
• Thyroid problems
Reduced basal metabolism, an enlargement of the thyroid gland, and disorders in the autonomic nervous system
• Hearing problems
• Heart disease
At least half the kids with Down syndrome have heart disease In Vitro Fertilisation Ethical, Social and Moral Issues of ART Same-sex couples, single and unmarried parents: Ethical concerns include reproductive rights, welfare of offspring, non-discrimination against unmarried couples, and also homosexual. As everyone is equal to the same entitlements, they should all receive the same treatment if wanted and needed and also that all patients should be concerned and attentive to their patient’s situations. If doctors refuse further action can be taken. 10–12 weeks pregnant
Size: about 85mm
The foetus is fully formed 12 weeks after conception. Almost all of the organs and structures in the baby have formed, they will continue to grow until the baby is born.Already the baby ishas started to move about Ovulation
Ovulation occurs when a mature egg is released from one of the two ovaries ready to be fertilised. At the same time the cervix mucus becomes thinner to let the sperm into the uterus more easily.
First Trimester- From Conception to week 12
Fertilisation occurs when a single sperm meets the egg and penetrates the egg where they combine to form a single cell called a zygote, takes place in the fallopian tube, the egg is now fertilised. Zygote
In 24 to 36 hours of fertilisation the zygote divides into two, 12 hours later it divides again into four, and it continues this way.
The zygote continues to divide to form a cluster of cells, this is called a morula. The morula leave the fallopian tubes and enters the uterus, this is about three to four days after fertilisation.
3 weeks pregnant
About six days after fertilisation a hollow cavity (blastocyst) is formed from the cluster of cells. The blastocyst is attracted to the uterus lining by hormones and it burrows itself into the lining, this is called implantation. It has been approximately three weeks since the women’s last period 4 weeks pregnant
Size: about 4mm
The group of cells on the inside are now called an embryo. The cells on the outside become like roots and link with the mother’s blood supply to form the placenta. The inner cells form into two layers and then later in three, each of these will end up being a different parts of the body. 5 weeks pregnant
Size: about 7mm
The cells from the neural tube by folding up and around, this will become the brain and spinal cord. By the end of the fifth week blood circulation will commence and the heart will develop quickly. 6–7 weeks pregnant
Size: about 8-10mm
Distinct areas in the brain are developing and the eyes and ears are starting to take shape. The heart starts to beat and can be seen beating by an ultrasound. Limb buds grow, these are the indicators of where the arms and legs will grow. 8–9 weeks pregnant
Size: about 22mm
The baby is now foetus, the face is beginning to form and the eyes have become more pronounced and have some colour. The Limb buds now being to turn into hands and feet, with ridges marking where the fingers and toes will grow. The baby’s major internal organs have begun to grow Development of foetus second Trimester Second Trimester
13–20 weeks pregnant
Size: about 15cm
The baby continues to grow quickly; the body grows so that the head and body are proportionate. facial features begin to come much more human and hair, eyebrows and eyelashes begin to grow. The eyelids stay closed over the eyes. 21–24 weeks pregnant
Size: about 27cm
Around 22 weeks lanugo (very fine soft hair) covers the baby, for an unknown purpose, it is thought that it may be to regulate the temperature of the baby. 25–26 weeks pregnant
Size: about 29cm
The baby now responds to touch and sound and is moving a lot. The baby may start to develop a pattern for waking and sleeping. The baby;s eyelids open at around 26 weeks. Development of foetus third Trimester Third Trimester
27–29 weeks pregnant
Size: about 33cm
A white greasy substance called vernix now covers the baby, it is thought this is to protect its skin. The baby’s heart beat can now be heard with a stethoscope. 30–31 weeks pregnant
The baby becomes chubbier with baby fat, the skin is now smoother, both the vernix and the lanugo begin to disappear. 32 weeks pregnant
The baby is starting to prepare for birth, turning downwards ready for the birth. 33–42 weeks pregnant
The head may move down to the pelvis sometime before birth. The average size of a full-term baby is 2.7 to 4.1kgs and 50-53cms long at birth. The placenta is about one-sixth of the baby’s weight, and the umbilical cord is almost as long as the baby. Problems that might occur during development • Eye problems
• Seizure disorders
• Bone, muscle, nerve, or joint problems
• Immune system problems
• Developmental delay
• Mental retardation
• Alzheimer's disease
Dementia (brain disorder) is Alzheimer’s disease which affects the ability to carry out daily activities. In Vitro Fertilization is an assisted Reproductive Technology that helps conceive a child, but it involves the child being conceived outside the mothers body. The women's egg is injected with one male sperm, fertilising the egg on a culture dish, when the embryos are at reasonable size they will be put back into the women’s uterus, using a long rubber tube,assisting in the process of creating a baby. What is it? The steps of IVF are (six week procedure): Hormones are used to stimulate the ovaries the production of several eggs so they can be collected instead of the usual one egg per cycle. The ovulation process is monitored by blood tests and ultrasounds resulting in the eggs being collected at the right time. Collection of eggs: When the eggs are ready to be collected, an ultrasound probe is put into the vagina while the patient sedated. An ultrasound monitor shows where the follicles are in the ovaries making it easier for doctor to guide the needle into the ovaries, each follicle in the ovary is pierced to collect the eggs. Fertilisation and transfer of embryos: Hours after the eggs are collected semen is provided from the man by masturbation. The sperm is then washed leaving just sperm, one of these sperm is injected into an egg in a culture dish. If the egg becomes fertilised by the sperm a pre-embryo will develop, which will be kept in an incubator for two to five days so that it can continue to grow and divide. When the embryos have grown to a reasonable size one or maybe two will be transferred back to the women’s uterus, but it must be at the correct time in her menstrual cycle. The process used is known as Embryo Transfer which is a fine plastic tube going through the cervix, into the uterine cavity with the vision of ultrasound and only one or two embryos can be transferred at a time. Two weeks after these procedures have occurred a pregnancy test would be the final test to determine if IVF has had a success. The problem with In Vitro Fertilization is that there can be the following side effects:
•Higher risk of birth defects
•ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
•The hormone oestrogen is too high, which causes swelling, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and also shortness of breath. Both produce a baby and allow the mother to have it herself, but IVF reduces the problem of fertility issues such as sperm antibodies and endometriosis. In Vitro Fertilization also enables those who cannot have a baby for various reasons e.g. their fallopian tube is damaged, partner has low sperm count, to have a child if they are not able to have a child the natural way. IVF allows them to do this even though there are fertility problems. Male Vas Deferens
The vas deferens, is a thin tube approximately 43.2 centimetres long that starts from the epididymis to the pelvic cavity. Seminal vesicles
Seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens at one side of the bladder. 70% of the semen produced by the system come from here Prostate gland
The prostate gland surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra, just below the bladder. The prostate gland is responsible for the production of semen, also responsible for mixing calcium to the semen coming from seminal vesicle The urethra
the passageway for urine and semen Penis
The penis is the male copulatory organ When the male becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes erect and ready for sexual activity. Epididymis
The epididymis is a whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cupped against the testicles. It acts as a maturation and storage place for sperm before they pass into the vas deferens, tubes that carry sperm to the ampullary gland and prostatic ducts. Testicles
components of both the reproductive system and the endocrine system. The primary functions of the testes are to produce sperm and to produce androgens (hormones), primarily testosterone. Scrotum
The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penis. It holds and protects the testes.
two small glands located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. Reproductive Organs Female Fallopian tubes
Narrow tubes attached to the uterus and act as tunnels for ova to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilisation of an egg by a sperm normally occurs here. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus and implants into the endometrium. The female reproductive system produces ova (eggs) for reproduction. The system transports the ova to the fallopian tubes where the egg is fertilised by a sperm. The egg is then transported to the uterus where it implants itself into the endometrium, then the stages of pregnancy begin. If fertilisation doesn't occur the system menstruates and sheds the thick uterus lining and the egg. this happens each month if no eggs are fertilised. The system also produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle. The purpose of the male reproductive organs that make up the reproductive system are to perform functions such as:
• To make, maintain, and move sperm and protective fluid called semen
• To eject sperm into the female reproductive tract during sex
• To make and emit male sex hormones which maintain the male reproductive system
Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body Labia
The labia enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs.
a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. Vagina
The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. Cervix
The lower part of the uterus that connects the vagina to the uterus Uterus
The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ, where the fetus develops. The uterus is split into two parts the cervix and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can expand to hold a developing baby. Ovaries
Small, oval-shaped glands located on both sides of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. Endometrium
Lining of the Uterus. When an egg is fertilised the hormones are released that trigger this lining to thicken and become highly nutritious so the egg can develop when implanted. Show how the structure of one male and one female organ relates to their function: Vagina
The vagina is a fibro muscular tube that extends from the cervix to the vulva that is a reasonable size to enable an erect penis to enter and also semen during sexual intercourse. Also the Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is very sensitive to stimulation during sex. Penis
The penis is made of three cylindrical columns of erectile tissue; the end of the penis is called the glans. The glans form a smooth protective cap over the end of the spongy tissue in the penis and has an opening at the tip of the penis known as the urethra; meatus.
When the male penis is sexually aroused nerves to the penis cause blood to fill the penis is engorged with blood resulting in the penis becoming enlarged and becomes erect for sexual intercourse. When the penis is erected it allows penetration into the vagina during intercourse in order to deliver the sperm to the uterus. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic allowing change in size of the penis during sexual intercourse. The Link between IVF and natural pregnancy
-In a partial molar pregnancy there are 23 female chromosomes and the male chromosomes are doubles again causing a total of 69 chromosomes. This can occur when two sperms meet one egg or when the male chromosomes are duplicated. The placenta will begin to grow and the embryo will begin to develop. A foetus, the amniotic sac and some foetal tissue could develop but the foetus won’t have the genetic makeup to survive. Molar Pregnancy Molar pregnancy occurs during fertilisation when egg and sperm meet. Usually a sperm has 23 chromosomes and the ovum has 23 chromosomes and when they meet the fertilised embryo has 46 chromosomes. A Molar pregnancy occurs when there are extra chromosomes or not enough chromosomes and when the egg and sperm meet there are the wrong combinations of chromosomes coming together. These causes abnormal cell growth and the cells can’t support the life of a baby.
There are two types of molar pregnancy, complete and partial:
-In a complete molar pregnancy the father’s chromosomes are duplicated because there are no chromosomes from the mother, this stops an embryo or amniotic sac forming and the placenta becomes a lump of cysts.
Depending on how serious the separation is:
- The baby may become distressed and have a low oxygen level in its blood causing brain damage, or the baby to die in the womb or a still birth.
- The baby may develop feeding and breathing problems early on.
- Blood pressure may be low or will have a low blood count. Placental Abruption The abnormal separation of placenta and uterus generally after 20 weeks of development. Reasons for it happening include: maternal trauma or drug use and maternal hypertension. It results in the placenta being partly removed from its source of nutrients from the mother. The fertilised egg usually takes 4-5 days to reach the womb from the fallopian tubes, the most common reason for an ectopic pregnancy is damage to the fallopian tube causing a blockage or narrowing which stops the egg from reaching the uterus so it implants in the fallopian tube Ectopic pregnancy a pregnancy that develops outside the womb, most ectopic pregnancies implant in one of the fallopian tubes. As it grows, it causes pain and bleeding and, if it is not found it can rupture causing internal bleeding which is a medical emergency and can be fatal. The pregnancy never survives it has to be completely removed. Bibliography Thanks •Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is the most successful form of treatment for men who are infertile
•Can be used as part of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in nearly half of all IVF treatments.
•It may also be used if IVF cycles have not achieved fertilisation. •ICSI is used to increase the changes of fertilization and is used for male unexplained infertility or a severe factor of infertility.
•It is the recommended form of treatment if the male has a very low or zero sperm count, high percentages of irregularly shaped sperm or poor sperm movement. •a sample of sperm is taken by masturbation, but if there has been an injury stopping the flow of sperm or an irreversible vasectomy (a surgical procedure where the vas deferens which carry sperm, are ‘interrupted’ so that conception cannot occur) then sperm is acquired through TESE (testicular sperm extraction), a doctor will take a biopsy of testicular tissue which may have sperm attached to it. The Stages: •ICSI involves the precise movement of a single live sperm injected directly into the centre of the women’s eggs that are retrieved using an ultrasound probe and needle whilst under local anaesthetic. The female had to undergo ovarian stimulation with hormones so that seven mature eggs developed. •After two days the fertilised eggs become balls of cells called embryos. The embryos are then transplanted into the uterus through the cervix using a thin catheter. The amount of embryos used is dependent on your age. If treatment is successful the embryo will attach to the uterus wall and continue to grow and eventually become a baby. The remaining embryos are stored in a freezer if the current one’s fail. •An advantage of using ICSI is that the sperm doesn’t have to travel to the egg or penetrate its outer layers so it can also help men whose sperm can get to the egg, but for some reason can’t fertilise it or when the sperm can’t get to the egg at all. •ICSI should be used to maximise success as through the procedure many couples with male infertility problems have achieved pregnancy and one average for every ten eggs eight will usually fertilize. The chances are high. separating sperm from debris IVF:
Current state of the industry: Many people think that IVF is a way to make money and the doctors really care about the patient situation but instead giving them the most expensive technique. Some say it’s a massive commercial industry For example in 2010 a doctor gave a patient 12 embryos which was too much which resulted in major publicity as the patient had eight children. Catholic Objections: The Catholic Church opposes IVF because it separates the purpose of marriage act from its unitive purpose, it is believed that the husband and wife is the closest intimacy, also renders them capable of generating a new life and this is from laws written into the nature of a man and a woman. IVF takes place on a dish and not in the body, which is concerning the Catholic Church as they consider this to be a replacement of the marital act and therefore immoral.
Concerns of children conceived by IVF: children conceived by in vitro fertilization using anonymous donors said they were troubled over not knowing about their donor parent as well any genetic relatives they may have and their family history. The children conceived through IVF should have rights to their documents containing donor parents, genetic information and also there family history. It shouldn’t be read or given out to anyone else because it is known as ILLEGAL. Ethical:
There are many ethical issues surrounding the new technology of ART, in particular intra cytoplasmic sperm injection.
For example the Roman Catholic Church believes that intercourse outside the creation of a baby is a ‘violation of nature’ and that it should it must be joined with life giving, although this is rejected amongst many Catholics. The second objection is that the male’s sperm is obtained through masturbation which is considered a disordered act and criticized as self-abuse.
Their third objection is that excess embryo’s should be treated as persons from the start and that their destruction should be amounted to homicide. Therefor that they embryo’s should be stored of used for further scientific used and wasted away.
Before the sperm is inserted into the embryo genetic modification can occur. On one side of the argument many people think genetic modification is good and in the future will be able to formulate people’s behaviour, as well as immunise future babies from preventable diseases. On the other side of the argument many people believe that everybody should be unique and made naturally without modification.
Regarding ART there have been many social dilemma’s concerning ICSI and whether it crosses a line and develops a respect for human life. Many argue that it doesn’t respect creating, instead scientific laws. Some people agree that we shouldn’t “tinker with nature” and respect Gods creation and believe ICSI is part of the bigger picture of “medical manipulation”
ICSI’s method of directly placing the sperm in the egg defeats the natural process, only letting a few sperm make it to and fertilising an egg. This also interrupts nature’s way of picking the best sperm with the best genetic material. This can increase health issues for children born using ICSI as well as creating a higher risk of a miscarriage due to the poor genetic material involved. Also recreating processes such as fertilisation in a lab will always carry risks as there is potential to damage the embryos. There is a greater change of a ICSI baby developing physical abnormities.
Some argue that it isn’t right to conceive a child that isn’t your own. ICSI is based on the women being treated for the man’s infertility. This may be controversial as single men and women and homosexuals may also suffer from being childless and should be given the same opportunity and respect to the issue. Moral distinctions are often made between these groups. ICSI