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Crime and Punishment through the ages

AM- Y5 Topic

Alex Meakin

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Crime and Punishment through the ages

Cruel Crimes and Painful Punishments
- Through the ages -

The Rotten Romans! (509BC- 500AD)
The Awful Anglo-Saxons (500AD-1066AD)
The Terrible Tudors (1485- 1603)
The Harrowing Highwaymen!
The Vile Victorians (1837- 1901)
Jesus Christ is born
Starter Activity
Talk partners: What kind of punishment would you give to these criminals?
a) A poor person who shoplifts.
b) A rich person who shoplifts.
electronic tagging
a fine
community service
banning order
At the height of the Roman Empire, they controlled ALL of the red section of this map!
Invading Britain...
By the time the Romans got to Britain, they had already developed a very detailed legal process. Citizens were covered by Roman law while non-citizens (most of the population) were covered by local law.

The Romans had laws to cover every possible crime, from assassinating the Emperor to polluting the streets.
Did you know:
There were NO POLICE in Roman times... you were expected to catch the criminals yourself!
LO: To explore crime and punishment in Roman times.
Talk partners:
How do you think the punishments for the rich and poor varied?
Crime Example No. 1
Stealing some silver plates...
If you were a rich citizen, you would simply be forced to pay the money back.
However, if you were a poor slave, you would be
executed by crucifixion.
Crime Example No. 2
Murdering someone...
If you were a rich citizen, you would be forced into
However, if you were a poor slave, you would be
executed by crucifixion.
Did you know...
If you murdered your father in Roman times, you would be put in a sack with venomous snakes and thrown into a river! Ouch!
Friday 2nd October 2015
To explore more about crime and punishment in the Roman times.
Your task:
For each scenario on your sheet, write a short paragraph (or match the description) in your topic book to describe what would happen.

Success Criteria:
a) To consider who would catch them and the punishment they might receive.
For each scenario, comment on whether you think this is fair and why?
Talk partners:
How do you think crime and punishment has changed since the Roman times?
LO: To explore crime and punishment in the Anglo-Saxon period.
The Anglo-Saxons started to arrive after the Romans left in 410 AD. The Romans had not trained the Britons to fight so it was easier to invade once they were gone!
On your whiteboards, write down one interesting thing about crime and punishment in the Roman times.
The Anglo-Saxons had never been ruled by the Romans so had all of their own laws, justice system and punishments. In comparison to the Romans, executions for crimes were quite rare!
Did you know?
Anglo-Saxon Punishments

Most crimes were dealt with by weregild law where the criminal had to pay the victim compensation.
The amount paid depended on what part of the person you injured and also their standing in society.
'Gild' means gold!
So far, how do you think the Anglo-Saxon justice system differed to the Roman version?
Talk Partners...
How did the Anglo-Saxon justice system work?
There were no police but each village had a group of tithingmen who were responsible for bringing wrong doers to justice.
There was a court with no lawyers but a jury to decide whether the person was guilty or innocent.
Both sides could bring forward witnesses to decide guilt or innocence.
If no witnesses could be found or the jury disagreed then there was a trial-by-ordeal.
Did you know?
The standard rate of weregild for the killing of a lord was around 1200 shillings, equal to around £12,000.
What was a trial by ordeal?
If the jury could not reach a balanced decision, the case would go to a trial by ordeal, in which the accused would be subjected to a dangerous or painful near-death experience. The theory was that if the accused was innocent, then God would intervene and save them from death.
Trial by hot coals
Forced to walk over hot coals until burnt. If accused healed in three days, they were declared innocent.
Trial by boiling water
Accused was forced to put hand into boiling water to pick up a stone. If they were healed in three days, they were found innocent.
Trial by water
Accused would be submerged in a river or stream. If they drowned, they were found guilty. If they survived, they were found innocent.
Trial by combat
If two people had a dispute, they could settle it in combat, called a duel.
The winner was declared innocent.
Today's activity
Each table is going to be a jury in an Anglo-Saxon trial!
For each case you must discuss the evidence as a group and then decide on their sentence!
But first...
We need four children to play the accused.
How do we now feel about the Anglo-Saxon system of justice?

How is it different from the Roman system and our own system?
While you're waiting...
On your whiteboards, write down five facts about the Anglo-Saxon system of crime and punishment.
How did the Normans arrive in Briton? What happened to the Anglo-Saxons?

Use your whiteboards to jot down key info as we watch this next clip...
The Stormin' Normans (1066AD- 1154AD)
Who were they and where did they come from?
The Normans came from Normandy in North-West France. They arrived in ...
This is the date that William the Conqueror came over from Normandy and won the Battle of Hastings. This begun the Norman rule in Briton.
William the Conqueror's
Forest Law
King William loved hunting so much that he decided to set up Royal Forests where he could hunt deer.
If one of these forests was set up near your village, overnight it would be a crime to gather firewood or hunt animals without a license.
Norman Punishments
By 1200, the weregild law and 'trials by ordeal' were abolished.
'Abolished' means that it has been completely stopped, unlikely to ever return.

For example:
'slavery was
in the UK in 1833'
Instead, people were shamed, mutilated, fined or executed for their crimes.
Fines would now go to the King instead of the victims family.
Your Task:

Friday 16th October 2015
LO: To write a diary entry from the point of view of a Norman criminal.
Types of punishment
Your name is Wulfric. You have a wife and two children and you are 30 years old. A Royal Forest was set up around your village last year and since then life has been very hard. You have no licence to gather firewood or catch animals and it is hard to keep your family warm and fed. You have a small amount of land to farm but have to give some of your food to the Lord of the Manor. You went out to poach (steal) deer to feed your family and were caught by a local tithingman who took you to the Lord of the Manor. The Lord held a court, found you guilty and sentenced you to mutilation – having your hand cut off for stealing. Without your hand it is going to be hard to farm and your family may go hungry. You are very, very worried.
Use your guide sheet to help you
write a diary entry
. The best ones (those who have displayed the most effort) will be chosen to be copied up neatly for our display!
For minor crimes like selling bad meat or bread or fighting, you could be thrown in the stocks, where people could thrown rotten food at you!
For women only! Could be given to women who gossiped, were bad tempered or if they thought you were a
Let's listen to a few of your diary entries...
Talk partners:

Is it ever justified to break into someone else's home?
Today's starter...
Remember how tough the poor people's lives were in Norman Britain...
Well, unfortunately...
Life was about to get even tougher!
Did you know?
(being homeless) and begging became crimes, punishable by whipping.
The monasteries had looked after the poor so many got even poorer!
Henry the VIII broke away from the Catholic Church and shut down all the monasteries to give the land to the gentry.
During Tudor times it got even worse for the poor....
How do you feel so far about the reign of Henry VIII?
Talk partners:
How fair do you think Henry VIII's criminal justice system was?
Can you guess?
How many people were executed during Henry's reign?
Answer! -->
Some 70,000 people suffered the death penalty during the reign of Henry VIII.
Types of Punishment in Tudor Britain...
Beheading ("Death by the Axe")
This was a punishment that resulted in your head being chopped off! The heads were sometimes placed on spikes along London Bridge or other places. Beheading was considered less degrading than hanging, and it usually killed more quickly. Noblemen (rich) who committed crimes were more likely to be beheaded than hung.

Hanging from the gallows.
A piece of rope was put around the neck making it hard for the person to breathe. The person would be hung from the rope until he/she had stopped breathing and was dead. People were hung for crimes such as stealing, treason, rebellion, riot or murder.

Women found guilty of either treason or petty treason were sentenced to be burned alive at the stake

Being 'pressed' (crushed)

Boiled alive

For attempting to murder someone you could be boiled alive in a big bowl of hot water.
Punishments for lesser crimes...

The Drunkard's Cloak
This was a punishment for public drunkenness. The drunk was forced to don a barrel and wander through town while the villagers jeer at him. Holes were cut in the barrel for the person's hands and head, causing it to become like a heavy, awkward shirt.

Branding with hot irons
Hot irons were used to burn letters onto the skin of offenders hand, arm or cheek. A murderer would be branded with the letter 'M', vagrants with the letter 'V', and thieves with the letter "T".
LO: To produce a mind-map poster, exploring the different crimes and punishments of Tudor Britain.
The Drunkard's cloak
Used for drunk people
They were forced to walk through the streets with it on!
I think this an unfair punishment because it humiliated the person wearing it.
Once you have written your date and LO, turn your page to landscape and begin your own mind-map poster.
You should describe each punishment, possible crimes and whether you think they are fair.
Here's an example!
Tell your partner one example of a Tudor punishment.
Then, your partner should use their mind-map to tell you something about that punishment, such as what it involved, or what you may do to get that punishment.
What do you already know about Highwaymen?
Watch this next clip and think about the following questions:
Who is the song about?
What crimes did he commit?
LO: To examine some famous highway men and explore why they became famous.
Who were the Highwaymen?
Highwaymen thrived in England in the 1600's and 1700's becoming
Did you know?
We say that someone or something is
when they/ it becomes so famous that they are very well-known.

Sometimes, even bad people can become legendary when their actions become highly famous (or infamous!)
During this time, rich people often carried their wealth around with them as there were no banks, which put them at risk since the roads were not guarded by police!
As a result, some people took to being Highwaymen.
As Highwaymen, they rode along these unguarded roads on horseback, waiting for a carriage to come by.

What do you think they may have done next?
They would stop carriages in the road and demand that they hand over their wealth. They used guns to threaten then.
Some of them were sons of wealthy people so they tended to be better dressed then other criminals.

They rode horses so could rob people and then get away quickly. They threatened people with guns.
Despite this, many people of the time saw highwaymen as
Printing had been invented so stories about highwaymen were put into pamphlets, books and newspapers.
In fact, many Highwaymen were us criminals, who even murdered the people they robbed.
In groups of 7 or 8, you are going to investigate four different Highwaymen.
Follow your instructions on your table.

Each group will have a short amount of time to find out about their highwayman, before moving onto the next table.
HOWEVER, one person each time will stay behind on their table in order to tell the next group about their highwayman.
Your Task:
Let's have a class vote...

Who's your favourite Highwayman?
Starter Activity:
Think about your recent trip to the Galleries of Justice in Nottingham.

Talk partners:
How harsh do you think the Victorian justice system was?
Following your visit to the Galleries of Justice, you have all had a chance to see a Victorian court of justice.
So today...
You are going to recreate a real-life trial from 1874, the trial of Mr John Walker.
You will all be barristers for the prosecution OR the defense!
Today's activity
Let's listen to the original case:
Our Moaning Modern Britain (1901- present)
Starter Activity...
When we think back to the many justice systems of Britain through the ages, is it right to
about the fairness of our own justice system, or should we just feel
to have it better than our ancestors?
Your Task:
Using the evidence that you have gathered from the trial case, you will now develop a case report for the prosecution or the defense of Mr John Walker. The class will be divided into two teams, who will each have around 20 minutes to prepare their case before battling it out against each other.
Use the frameworks provided to think about how to prepare your case.
LO: To prepare a prosecution/defense case for a Victorian convict.
Talk partners:
How strict was the Victorian criminal justice system?
Monday 1st December 2014
LO: To map out the geographical location of our prisons.
LO: To explore modern crime and punishment
The growing use of Prisons in the UK...
Even though we may have thought the Victorians were quite bloody and certainly harsh when it came to their criminal justice system, in actual fact Victorian people wanted to see an end to public hanging and torture. Therefore, prisons became more and more popular.

How many prisons do you think we have in the UK today?
There are around 120 prisons in England and Wales alone, most of which are thought to be
Famous prisons...
Alcatraz Prison (San Francisco, USA)
Alcatraz prison is famous for being one of the most high security prisons in the world. Throughout the 1900s, it was known as a 'super-prison', said to be completely escape-proof! This prison was reserved for only the most serious offenders.
During WW1, it was used as a prison for German prisoners of war.
Today's Task
You are a criminal, who has just arrived at the Prison of Alcatraz. You have just been marched to your cell and locked in. Fortunately, you have a pencil and a scrap of toilet paper to write on.
Write a diary entry, describing your arrival and first night in the prison cell. Use the images on your table to help!

LO: To explore modern crime and punishment
Think back to
that we have learned about crime and punishment.
Think of one word to describe crime and punishment today.
Why did you choose that word?
Armley Prison Leeds
Built in 1847, Leeds Prison in Armley is a category B mens prison. This means that the prison is not "high security", but escape should be made very difficult for prisoners.
New Hall Womens Prison is located in the village of Flockton, West Yorkshire. It was opened in 1933 as an "open" prison (this is a very low security prison), as a result of the increase in prison population. It became a women's in 1987.
New Hall Women's Prison
HMP Isle of Wight is quite a new prison, it was only opened in 2009. It was formed by combining three prisons - HMP Parkhurst, HMP Albany and HMP Camp Hill.
It is a category B prison.
Before closing in 2013, HMP Cornhill in Shepton Mallet was the oldest working prison in the UK. It opened in 1610! It has housed some notorious criminals over the years including infamous London gangsters the Kray twins. It was used during WW2 and even took some of the countries most important documents for safeguarding.
HMP Cornhill
HMP Isle of Wight
HMP Wakefield
Largest high security prison in the UK. Wakefield houses some of the worst offenders in the country (the category A criminals).
The Clink Prison sat in the heart of Southwark in London. The original prison operated from 1144-1780 and is known for giving its name to all other prisons. It is now a museum! It is said that it got the name "Clink" from the sounds of the blacksmiths hammer closing the irons around prisoners wrists and ankles. Have you ever heard prison referred to as the Clink before?
The Clink
HMP Manchester was opened in 1868. In 1990, Strangeways was taken over by rioting prisoners! They climbed onto the chapel roof and pelted prison officers with slates.
Bodmin Moor
Built for King George III in 1779 by the prisoners, who lugged 20 000 tons of granite from a nearby quarry! Under strict supervision of course. There were 60 executions at Bodmin and now it is said to be extremely haunted. Now it is a museam and you can even go on a Bodmin Jail ghost walk............. if you dare.
Leeds Prison
HMP Wakefield
New Hall
Bodmin Moor
The Clink
Isle of Wight
HMP Cornhill
Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle
A working prison until 2011, Lancaster Castle is possibly most famous for its part in the trial and punishment of the "Lancashire Witches" in 1612. Old Demdike (Elizabeth Southern), one of the witches, died at Lancaster Castle while awaiting trial. You can still visit the old dungeons where the witches were kept today!
The Tower of London
Built as a prison.
There are no cells or dungeons.

Only 10 people were executed at the Tower.
Read the Tower of London facts, then plot the Tower on your map and add one fact of your choice.
The Tower is now home to the Crown Jewels.
Plot where all of the prisons are
on your map. Then write three facts
about each prison in the boxes.
When you finish, colour your maps in.
Friday 11th December 2015
Full transcript