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Transcript of Jazz 2
-new post- World War I optimism
-America was finally breaking from European culture Is the best music also the most popular music? How does music become popular? Do the media make music popular, or do consumers choose what is popular? Jazz music, before and during World War II, was the most popular music in the country. Discuss how social, political, and technological trends helped make jazz popular. Chicago!
-Jazz developed most intensely
-Already had a strong musical pedigree
-Many European immigrants+Latin Americans, Carribeans and more
-Rail, shipping hub, factories
-The Chicago Defender (African-American newspaper) advised Southern blacks that there was a job for everyone
-big step toward economic and personal freedom -His graceful, intense, full of passionate music demands a more flexible rhythm than oompah feel of two beat jazz Louis Armstrong
-Born in 1901 in a poor New Orleans
-Delinquent home at age of 12, learned the Cornet
-Renowned for power, warm tone, inventiveness
-Became legend by 1920s, in his 20s
-Joined the Great Migration north with his mentor King Oliver and his Creole jazz band in 1922
--2 yrs later, he moved to New York City
-Hot Five & Seven -Born in the Washington D.C. in 1899
-In 1923, he moved to New York where an African-American cultural revolution "Harlem Renaissance' was underway
-Ellington fashioned his own distinctive, rich piano style
- Composer, arranger, performer of Swing orchestra
- In his composition for nightly floor shows, he drew on every type of music available, from sentimental songs, classical melodies to the blues and West Indian folk dance. Duke Ellington(The Duke) The Great Depression Reference
http://www.npr.org/music/genres/jazz-blues/ "In those days, we were brainwashed into believing that blacks were inferior to us. They were not allowed to come into our shops and cinemas, bit we shites were allowed to go out to their community, where they treated use beautifully...It was on the strenght of this that I developed a love for them and became a jazz musician" - Saxophonist Bud Freeman "West End Blues" 1928 Innovation!
-Unaccompanied trumpet passage
-changes of tempo, brilliant flourished melody
- Spontaneous duet full of rhythmic and melodic innovations
-Other musicians borrowed them for the next 20 years. -distinctive vocal phrasing and the scat singing technique
-cheerful rasp and relaxed use of language
- influence nearly every American vocalist to come. New Orleans jazz (recorded before 1923)
- Model of democracy
-Emphasizing the collective improvisation and expressions
-Trumpet, cornet leaders accompanied by an ensemble
- Harmonies and complementary melodies by trombone and clarinet
-Front line- Trumpet, clarinet, trombone, Vocal
- Second line - ensemble
-Rhythm section- banjo, drums, tuba(or bass), sometimes piano Chicago jazz (during 1920s and move to NY in 30s)
- soloist's music, showcase the virtuosity of a single improvising artist
-greater emphasis on individual solos, a less relaxed feeling
- simple accompanying rhythms (often just a chord on each beat by piano, guitar, or banjo, with bass and drums) and
improvised counter lines among the melody instruments (trumpet, clarinet, trombone, saxophone, and occasionally violin) When The Saints Go Marching In Compare between New Orleans jazz and Chicago jazz What a Wonderful World Up a Lazy River Prohibition -1920 prohibiting bottling and consumption of alcohol for 13 years
-Many people in Chicago ignored the law
-Criminals gangs joined the forces to open nightclubs - liquor, gambling, dancing, music
-Jazz musicians in big demand Dace hall in 1920s "Mooche"- Ellington’s early music at Harlem’s Cotton Club was unique and atmospheric—and it always got the dancers on the floor. "It was not until the discovery of Ellington that we had any hint that jazz possessed possibilities of a range of expressiveness comparable to that of classical European music" Ralph Ellison, Writer Jitterbug dance Jitterbug and swing -The collapse of the stock market, years of unemployment, poverty
- Yet jazz musicians continually innovate new style
- Significant improvements in recording technoloty and expansion in the size of bands
- Usually made up by Brass section (4 trumpets, 2-3 tromobes, Reed section (4 saxophones, clarinets, play either in unison or call-and-response), Rhythm section (piano, bass, drums, guitar)
- moving away from 2 beat to 4 beat per bar.
-looser, more flexible rhythm that suited a new and very popular style of dance, Jitterbug. -Mid to late 1930s, Swing had firmly established itself as the pop music of America
-Anything could use swing- classical pieces, marches, Broadway, new pop songs
-Many loved its solo driven, improvisatory approach to the music.
-Both Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong had become popular with everyone, thanks to radio development -Benny Goodman, the most successful swing band.
-In 1936, he added black musicians and play together in public- was considered the cutting edge of civil right World War II deeply affected evolution of jazz
- Musicians in military service In 1942, the musicians' union called a strike againt the record company
-demanding compensate fairly for radio and jukebox play of recording
- No instrumental music was recorded for almost 2 years
- Vocalist (not part of the union) recorded accompanied ONLY by other singers -After the war, US military swing bands traveled around Europe.
-Big band drawing to a close due to the strike and sudden popularity of vocal music Guiding Questions How the music of the early jazz (1920s) and that of the Swing period (roughly 1935-1950), were different including soloists, singers, size of bands, and arranging styles?
Also what are the regional differences in the jazz music of Chicago and New York?