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on 30 October 2014

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Transcript of Personality

Explain the differences among individuals
Explore how people conduct their lives
Determine how life can be improved
Provide a way of organizing the many characteristics about people
+ Theories and Assessment Tools
The consistent, enduring, and unique characteristics of a person
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
No right or wrong answer
567 statements: can answer true, false or cannot say
Reveals habits, fears and symptoms of psychiatric disorders
Personality test:
assesses personality and identifies problems
The California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
Measures traits like responsibility, self-control, and tolerance.
Used to predict things like adjustment to stress, leadership and job success.
The Rorchach Inkblot Test
Cards with inkblots
What do you see?
No right or wrong answers.
Anything someone sees or does reveals aspects of their personality
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
20 cards - vague but suggestive situations
The individual tells a story about the situation.
That story encourages individuals to speak freely about their problems.
The responses are used to assess the motivation and personality characteristics of the individual taking the test.
The Myers- Briggs Test
Popular personality test
Characterizes personality on four different scales:
extroversion vs. introversion
intuition vs. sensing
feeling vs. thinking
judging vs. perceiving
The creators believe that each person's personality is a combination of these characteristics.
PsychoAnaLytiC Theories
Sigmund Freud and the Unconscious
The Id, Ego and Superego
Defense Mechanisms
Evaluating Freud's Contribution
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
Trait Theories
What is it?
Gordan Allport: Identifying Traits
Raymond Cattell: Sixteen Trait Theory
Hans Eysenck: Dimensions of Personality
The Big Five
Humanistic Theories
Humanistic Psychology
Abraham Maslow: Growth and Self-Actualization
Carl Rogers: Self Theory
socioCultural Theories
B.F. Skinner: Behaviorism
Albert Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory
Emphasize the importance of early childhood experiences, repressed thoughts, and conflict between conscious and unconscious forces
Focus on identifying, measuring, and classifying similarities and differences in personality characteristics traits
Emphasize our capacity for personal growth, development of our full potential, and freedom to make choices
Cognitive-personal factors, our behaviors, and environment factors interact to shape our personalities
Objective test:
a limited choice test (in which a person must select one of several answers) designed to study personality characteristics
Projective test:
an unstructured test in which a person is asked to respond freely, giving his or her own interpretation of various ambiguous stimuli
unconscious: the part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors

thoughts that can be recalled with relatively little effort
Freud believed that many of our experiences, particularly the painful episodes of childhood, are not forgotten but are stored in the unconscious.
the part of the unconscious personality that contains our needs, drives, instincts and repressed material
- The container of instinctual and biological urges.

- It operates in terms of the
pleasure principle
, seeking immediate gratification of desires, regardless of the consequences.

- Doing something that may hurt someone's feelings, lying, and having fun are examples of the id's influence.

the part of the personality that is touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways
- Mostly conscious.

- Operates in terms of the
reality principle
: choosing reason over passion
the part of the personality that is the source of conscience and counteracts the socially undesirable impulses of the id
- Represents the learning and incorporation of your primary caretaker's ideals

- The moral part of the personality
The id is what you want to do, the ego plans what you can do and the superego advocates what you
- the moral principle

- Can create conflicts and problems.

- The source of guilt and the conscience.

defense mechanisms:
certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances
- Stem from the unconscious part of the ego
- Usually they only become recognizable to the individual during psychoanalysis
- To some degree, they are necessary for psychological well-being.
- If a person resorts to defense mechanisms all of the time, he will avoid facing and solving his problems realistically.

Reaction Formation
- Involves making up acceptable excuses for behaviors that cause us to feel anxious.

Ex: "The test questions were bad; they didn't make sense."
- Pushing painful memories and unacceptable thoughts and motives down to the unconscious without realizing it

- Pushing "I hate you Dad" down and replacing it with "I don't hate you. I have no special feelings at all about you."
- Refusing to accept the reality of something that makes you anxious
- Seeing the tornado warning on the news, but not believing the tornado could hit your house.
- Believing that impulses coming from within are really coming from other people.

- Inner feelings are thrown, or projected, outside the self and assigned to others.

- Ex: "I'm not jealous,

- Ex: Thinking everyone else doesn't like you, when really you just dislike yourself.
- Replacing unacceptable feelings or urge with an opposite one.

- Ex: A divorced father may resent having his child for the weekend. Unconsciously, he believes it is terribly wrong for a father to react that way, so he showers the child with expressions of love, toys, and exciting trips.

- Going back to an earlier and less mature pattern of behavior that has helped you in the past.

- Ex: Throwing a temper tantrum, pouting, crying, hitting.
- Occurs when you cannot take out your anger on the source of your frustrations, so you take it out on a less powerful person

- Ex: You wanted to hit your dad, but hit your little brother instead.
- Redirecting a forbidden desire into a socially acceptable desire.

- Ex: Channeling aggressive feelings into physical activities by exercising.
Freud recognized the tremendous forces that exist in human personality and the difficulty of controlling and handling them.
Freud was the first psychologist to claim that infancy and childhood are critical times for forming a person’s basic character structure.
Freud was also the first person to propose a unified theory to understand and explain human behavior. No other theory has been more complete, complex, or controversial.

collective unconscious:
the part of the mind that contains inherited instincts, urges, and memories common to all people

an inherited idea, based on the experiences of one's ancestors, which shapes one's perceptions of the world

Former friend of Freud
Jung disagreed with Freud on two major points.
1) He took a more positive view of human nature, believing that people try to develop their potential as well as handle their instinctual urges.
2) He distinguished between the personal unconscious (similar to Freud's unconscious) and the collective
- The same archetypes are present in every person.
- They reflect the common experiences of humanity
regarding mothers, fathers, nature, war, etc.
Archetypes appear again and again in culture.
Archetypes like these are stored in the unconscious of every human being.
Gives us direction and provides a sense of completeness.
Shapes our personalities.

Our Sense of Self
Former associate of Freud
- Believed that the driving force in people's lives is a desire to overcome their feelings of inferiority.
- Everyone struggles with inferiority.
Inferiority Complex
inferiority complex:
a pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source
- When someone continually tried to compensate for his weakness and avoid feelings of inadequacy

patterns that persist throughout life

Ex: Parents overpampering their children leads to that child being a self-centered person.
a tendency to react to a situation in a way that remains stable over time
Trait theorists generally make two basic assumptions about traits:
1) Every trait applies to all people.
Ex: Everyone can be classified as either more or less dependent.
2) These descriptions can be quantified.
Ex: We could establish a scale on which an extremely dependent person scores a 1 while a very independent person scores a 10.
Cattell's Sixteen Source Traits
- Said a person's traits will be consistent in different situations.

- Defined common traits as those that apply to everyone and individual traits as those that apply more to a specific person
Allport described three kinds of individual traits:
cardinal trait:
a characteristic or feature that is so pervasive the person is almost identified with it
central trait:
makes us predictable (she's assertive; he's a flirt)
secondary trait:
our preferences (like in food and music); have a less important and less consistent influence on us.
factor analysis:
a complex statistical technique used to identify the underlying reasons variables are correlated
- Proposed that characteristics that can be observed in certain situations make up 46 traits called surface traits.
surface trait:
a stable characteristic that can be observed in certain situations (46)
source trait:
a stable characteristic that can be considered to be at the core of personality (16)
Less intelligent
Affected by feelings
More intelligent
Emotionally stable

(1916 -1997)
- Concluded that there are three basic dimensions of personality.
Stability versus instability
- refers to the degree to which people have control over their feelings.
At the emotionally stable end of the spectrum is a person who is easygoing, relaxed, well-adjusted, and even-tempered.
Extroversion versus introversion

an outgoing, active person who directs his or her energies and interests toward other people and things

a reserved, withdrawn person who is preoccupied wit his or her inner thoughts and feelings
At one end of this dimension are self-centered, hostile, and aggressive people. At the other are individuals who are socially sensitive, caring and empathetic people.
- associated with warmth, talkativeness, and being energetic. The opposite of this dimension is introversion, meaning being quiet or reserved.
- involves being sympathetic to others, kind, and trusting; the opposite is cruel and nontrusting
- identifies individuals who are dutiful, dedicated to completing tasks, organized and responsible
Openness to experience
- describes people who are open-minded and willing to try intellectual experiences, new ideas, or creative experiences
Emotional stability
- identifies individuals who experience things relatively easily and without getting upset. The opposite is neurouscism - a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions a great deal of the time.
Summing Trait Theories Up...
Trait theorists assume that traits are relatively fixed, or unchanging.
The advantage of trait theories is that by identifying a person's personality traits, that person's behavior can be predicted.
Critics argue that trait theories describe personality rather than explain it.
Critics of trait theories propose that personality is an interaction between a person's traits and the effects of being in a particular situation.
Needs and likes to be with people
Energizes self through interaction with others
Needs and wants many friends
Interested in what is happening in the external word
Tends to be expressive
Tolerates criticism well
Eager to jump into new situations
Needs to have "space"
Energizes self by being along
Limits friendships
Interested in internal reactions
Tends to be hesitant to express ideas/feelings
Takes criticism personally
Often reluctant to jump into new situations
humanistic psychology:
an approach that stresses the uniqueness of the individual
the humanist term for realizing one's unique potential
The Father of Humanistic Psychology
Characteristics of Self-Actualized People
They are realistically oriented.
They accept themselves, other people, and the natural world for what they are.
They have a great deal of spontaneity.
They are problem-centered rather than self-centered.
They have an air of detachment and a need for privacy.
They are autonomous and independent.
Their appreciation of people and things is fresh rather than stereotyped.
Most of them have profound mystical or spiritual experiences, although not necessarily religious in character.
They identify with humanity.
Their intimate relationships with a few specially loved people tend to be profound and deeply emotional rather than superficial.
Their values and attitudes are democratic.
They do not confuse means with ends.
Their sense of humor is philosophical rather than hostile.
They have a great fund of creativeness.
They resist conformity to the culture.
They transcend the environment rather than just coping with it.
- Best known for his role in the development of counseling. He believed people should focus on present problems and not dwell on the past.
He called self-actualization "full functioning."
There are two sides to every person:
Each person is constantly striving to be more complete and perfect.
Each individual also has a self.
one's experience or image of oneself, developed through interaction with others
positive regard:
viewing oneself in a positive light due to positive feedback received from interaction with others
conditions of worth:
the conditions a person must meet in order to regard himself or herself positively
unconditional positive regard:
the perception that individuals' significant others value them for what they are, which leads the individuals to grant themselves the same regard
fully functioning:
an individual whose person and self coincide
belief that the proper subject matter of psychology is objectively observable behavior - and nothing else
Skinner saw no need for a general concept of personality structure. He focused on what causes a person to act in a specific way and how aspects of one's personality is learned.
contingencies of reinforcement:
the occurrence of a reward or punishment following a particular behavior
Skinner's approach is very action-oriented.
Behaviorism was not proposed as a theory of personality, but Skinner had a major impact on personality theory.
(1925- )
- Argued that personality is acquired not only by direct reinforcement of behavior but also by observational learning, or imitation.

In Bandura’s view, people direct their own behavior by their
choice of models.
In part, when your parents object to the company you keep, they are trying to change the models you use.
Personality Development
According to Bandura's theory, a person's personality is shaped by an interaction among three forces.
1. Cognitive - Personal Factors:
our beliefs, expectations, values, intentions, social roles, as well as our emotional makeup and biological and genetic influences
2. Behaviors:
our personal actions
3. Environmental Factors:
our social, political, and cultural influences and our personal learning experiences
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