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Geography Chapter 1 Living with Tectonic Hazards Gateway 3

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on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Geography Chapter 1 Living with Tectonic Hazards Gateway 3

Gateway 3: How do people prepare for and respond to earthquakes?
Preparedness measures

Emergency Drills
Emergency drills are a form of preparedness measures as it
creates awareness
among the population and
levels of
panic and any irrational behavior
during natural disasters such as earthquakes.
Use of Technology
Technological devices allows scientist to
warn people of potential hazards
so that they
can evacuate.
Done By:
Jeff Yip
Zul Hamzi
Leonard Soh
Clement Yap

What is Preparedness Measures?
Because we are not able to prevent natural disasters hence there is a need for preparedness measures.
Preparedness measures are measures that can be taken to handle natural disasters to minimize damages and injuries and or death and to cope with the impacts.
Preparedness measures
Land use regulations
Building design
Infrastructure development
Emergency drills
Use of technology

Land use regulations
Land use regulations are rules that are implemented to restrict developments in certain areas.
Unsaturated soil flows like liquid when
occurs making the ground
and hence


Construction of new buildings are prohibited at
low lying
lands which are vulnerable to
Only when there are
protective barriers
such as sea-walls facing the ocean are constructed, developments are allowed.
Low lying areas
To implement these regulations, a concern is that they often need to be carried out in
areas which may be already built up or privately owned.
In some cases government authorities have to buy lands from private owners, compensating those who are affected in order to implement these costly measures.
Private owners are reluctant to move out as they often believe that another hazard will not occur.

Eg. Maldives islands
Eg. San Francisco
of land use regulations
It is to reduce chances of a building collapsing due to an earthquake which can minimize damage and injuries with effective building designs.
Building Designs
The Downside of effective building designs
Although constructing buildings that can withstand earthquakes
can save lives and reduce damage
, they are often
costly to build
. Also, it is also expensive to convert existing buildings to earthquake resistance ones.
One policy that China used is if the building is too expensive to convert, then the buildings will be demolished and rebuilt with the earthquake resistance features.
Infrastructure Development
Transamerica building;
San francisco
Infrastructure needs to be developed with advanced engineering to
the vibration of an earthquake. Here are some examples:
Infrastructures like can be built
to resist
the shaking of the ground or earthquakes so that they
do not collapse
can be repaired
if they collapse.
Eg. Roads, Bridges and Dams
Resist earthquakes
Preventing Fires
Many infrastructures are fitted with trip switches so as to
prevent fires
from breaking out by

off all electrical points
when an
Emergency Reservoirs
These large underground water tanks are used
in case of fires breaking
after an earthquake
water may not be available.
Strict building codes
Strict building codes are to be followed to
ensure safety
every infrastructure.
San Francisco earthquake 1906
An Example:
San francisco burning after the 1906 quake
These brick circles might look decorative, but there’s much more to them than what’s on the surface. Underneath each is a concrete tank that holds 75,000 gallons of water. 172 of these underground cisterns exist throughout the city, making up an important component of San Francisco’s Auxiliary Water Supply System (AWSS). The tanks were created in response to the devastating 1906 quake.
Infrastructures built to resist earthquakes are
more costly.
However, they have proved to be
in past earthquakes. Such benefits include
fewer losses of lives
faster rescue and evacuations
less money spent on recovering
the affected area
Benefits of infrastructure development
People take part in emergency drills
by moving to safe locations
, listening to instructions given by train personal and
practicing first-aid
. They may also become members of local response team that assist people during a disaster.
Eg. Disaster prevention day; Japan
1 September annually
The limitations of emergency drills
Emergency drills are
often based on the worse-case scenario
in the area. Therefore
if an even worse-case scenario were to occur, the people will not be prepared
for that natural disaster.
In addition, emergency drills are
only effective if there is enough time for people to evacuate.
And o
ften there is not enough time
for evacuation as the natural disasters are
hard to predict.
Earthquakes can be monitor by studying where and when past ones have occurred. This provides an
estimation of the frequency and magnitude
of earthquakes at particular fault lines. This way earthquake can be predicted.
Earthquake monitoring and warning systems
Seismic maps
earth movements or liquefaction.
However they can only give a
general indication
of earthquakes. They
do not pin-point

it will happen,
it will happen, and the

of future earthquakes.
Seismic risk maps
Earthquake sensors
Earthquake sensors help
monitor the frequency of earth movements
and detect
possible stress build-up of an earthquake
. They are placed in different locations and
of earthquakes and
estimation of damage dealt to infrastructures.
Limitations of
earthquake monitoring and warning systems
to obtain, install and use
Insufficient time
for evacuation after detecting
Other interference
like noises, lightning or device failure may give false warnings
Multiple earthquakes
, tremor or movement of earth makes it hard to give accurate warnings
Tsunami monitoring and warning systems
Tsunami monitoring devices
help predict tsunamis
. They are often
linked to warning system
to warn people about an
approaching tsunami
Limitations of
tsunami monitoring and warning systems
The warning systems often give
false alarm
when there is a
huge wave
Little time to evacuate
the people at shore once an
approaching tsunami
is detected as they
move very quickly.
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