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Copy of Atomic Structure, Ions, & Isotopes

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Jenn Wilson

on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Atomic Structure, Ions, & Isotopes

Atomic Structure

Isotopes & Ions
What is an atom?
Atom: The smallest part of an element that still has the element's properties
Structure:
Nucleus:
-Center of the atom
-Nearly all of the mass
-Contains protons and neutrons

Electron Cloud:
-Surrounds the nucleus
-Contains electrons


Size of an Atom
-Atoms are EXTREMELY small.
-Think apple to the earth


-The nucleus is even smaller.
-Think marble in the middle of MetLife Stadium
So, what is the rest of the atom?
EMPTY SPACE!
Subatomic Particles
The smaller parts of an atom
+
+
-
-
+
+
-
Electrons:
-Located in the electron cloud
-Negative Charge
-Relative size of 1/2000 (negligible mass)
e-
Protons:
-Located in the nucleus
-Positive Charge
-Relative size of 1
p+
Neutrons:
-Located in the nucleus
-Neutral Charge (no charge)
-Relative size of 1
n
o
Protons and Neutrons make up the mass of the atom
Protons and electrons balance, giving the atom a net charge of
zero
in its normal state
p+
e-
Atomic # and Mass #
X
A
Z
Element symbol (X)
Atomic Number (Z)
The number of protons in the atom
Atomic # NEVER changes
Unique for every element
Every atom of the same element has that atomic number
The periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number
Mass Number (A)
The total number of protons and neutrons (the mass)
Mass # can vary
Allows us to calculate the number of neutrons
Mass # - Atomic # = # of Neutrons
Examples:
Element Atomic # Mass # p+ e- n
1 1 1 1 0
H
Li
Al
Cr
Ca
Kr

3 7 3 3 4
13 27 13 13 14
24 52 24 24 28
20 40 20 20 20
36 84 36 36 36
Isotopes
Isotope: Atoms of an element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons (same atomic #, different mass #)
Carbon has 3 isotopes:
Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14
-All 3 isotopes have 6 protons (atomic #: 6)
-Carbon-12 has mass # 12 (6 neutrons)
-Carbon-13 has mass # 13 (7 neutrons)
-Carbon-14 has mass # 14 (8 neutrons)
Example
Average Atomic Mass
The element's mass based on the relative natural abundance of each isotope
It is the mass found on the periodic table

Formula: Σ (mass of isotope x % abundance in decimal) = amu
(27.98 x 0.9223) + (28.98 x 0.0467) + (29.97 x 0.0310) =

25.81 + 1.35 + 0.929 =
28.09 amu

*Mass on P.T.
% abundance in decimals!
Mass
Ex. Average Atomic Mass of Silicon
http://www.sisweb.com/referenc/source/exactmas.htm
Ions
Ions
: Charged Particles - atom or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge
(Same # of protons, different # of electrons)
Cation
Anion
Positive Charge
Atom has lost 1 or more electrons
Tend to be metals (left side of P.T.)
Negative Charge
Atom has gained 1 or more electrons
Tend to be non-metals (right side of P.T.)
11 electrons
10 electrons
Protons and electrons are no longer balanced
Charge is shown as a superscript
10 electrons
9 electrons
Full transcript