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Copy of Abnormal Psychology Portfolio
Transcript of Copy of Abnormal Psychology Portfolio
Ugo Betty Panic and anxiety disorders Table of Contents Abnormal quotes. (n.d.). Retrieved from Brainy Quote: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/abnormal.html
Are we over-diagnosing mental disorders. (2010, Februrary 10). Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/video/diagnosing-mental-disorders-9802117
Borland, S. (2012, October 11). Half of hospital patients have eating disorders...and some aged just five. Mail Online .
Eating Disorders Soar: One Woman's Campaign for Women to Cherish Themselves. (2012, July 29). Retrieved from YouTube:
Is it a mood, or something else? (2002). Chicago, Illinois: National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association.
Ledoux, J. (2012, January 22). Searching the brain for the roots of fear. Opinionator.
South korea gaming: skill or addiction? (2012, August). Retrieved from CNN: http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/tech/2012/08/01/natpkg-orig-korea-gaming-addiction.cnn
Woman showing same symptoms as Le Roy teens. (2012, Februrary 1). Retrieved from HLNTV: http://www.hlntv.com/video/2012/01/31/medical-mystery-adult-shows-symptoms
Man who stole school bus has history of mental illness. (2012, November). Retrieved from YouTube
Walsh, S. (2008, June).20 Identifiable traits of a female narcissist. Hooking Up Smart: http://www.hookingupsmart.com/2010/06/28/relationshipstrategies/20-identifiable-traits-of-a-female-narcissist/
Increasing dementia costs burns through 1% of global GDP. (2012, March). Retrieved from YouTube
Albin, A. (2009, April). Mental health problems more common in kids who feel racial discrimination. UCLA Newsroom: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/children-who-feel-racial-discrimination-89333.aspx Woman Shows Same Symptoms as Le Roy Teens http://www.hlntv.com/video/2012/01/31/medical-mystery-adult-shows-symptoms I decided to use this picture in my portfolio because I thought it did a great job of illustrating the concept of alters. Alter is the term used to identify the subpersonalities of an individual with dissociate identity disorder (DID). DID is defined as a person who develops two or more distinct personalities, each with a unique set of memories, behaviors, thoughts, and emotions. The picture is an illustration of people showing up at a support group for DID (previously called multiple personality disorder). The people in the drawing are all wearing multiple name tags, each representing one of their alters. DID is normally caused by some extremely traumatic event during childhood such as satanic rape. The alters normally represent some individual related to the traumatic event. The five most commonly manifested alters are child personalities, different aged personalities, persecutor personalities, and opposite sex personalities. DID is caused by the containment of traumatic memories. Because these memories are contained and pushed so far away, the become to gain their own personalities, which is what the alters are. The Persecutor personality is normally the individual that caused the trauma. Different aged personalities can be the host in his/her teenage or preteen years. And opposite sex personality can be a brother or sister that also relates to the trauma being suppressed. Most alters are age constant, and never grow older; only the host ages. In some cases, the alters are aware of each other, and in other cases, they may not be. This illustration helps give a visual as to what DID actually is. The host may be sue, but shes also Jan and Barb as well. And you need all three name tags because you don't know when you're going to transition from one alter to the next. I chose this video for my portfolio because it connects to the video that we watched in class about the NY teens who mysteriously acquired a twitch all at the same time. The video shows that another woman had acquired the same twitch as the girls. It was discovered that the girls, and consequently the woman as well, have a case of hysteria somatoform disorder. And more specifically, Conversion Disorder. Somatoform Disorders are characterized as problems that seem to be physical or medical but are actually caused by psychosocial factors. The concept that I want to focus on in relation to somatoform disorders is stress. Stress is beleived to be the cause of somatoform disorders. It is believed that feelings that are not being expressed emotionally begin to express themselves physically. Somatoform disorders usually appear in adolescence and early adulthood; the most stressful time of someone's life. It is believed that once the feeling causing the physical symptom is identified and expressed emotionally, than that symptom will dissappear. However, because the individual has been keeping this emotion buried so long, it might be difficult to identify it. This video truely helps my understanding of the disorder because it shows that another woman, who is not related to the NY girls in any way, is also having the same symptoms. This shows me that the cause of these twitches is most likely not environmental. It also supports the belief that this is a conversion disorder and it can be treated. I chose this cartoon for my portfolio because it shows how the different approaches to psychology differ in the belief of why something happens. However, none of the characters in this cartoon believe in the cognitive approach to explanation and treatment. The cognitive approach believes the cause of things is maladaptive thinking. To treat most disorders, the psychologist is going to use reasoning in order to solve the problem. At the end of treatment, the ultimate goal is adaptive thinking. In cognitive therapies, people are encouraged to learn a new way to think in order to prevent maladaptive behavior. Also closely related to the cognitive model, is the psychoanalytic model which I also believe is effective in explaining and treating disorders. According to this model, the dysfunction is caused by underlying conflicts and it can be treated through broad psychological change. The therapists acts as an interpreter and seeks to uncover past trauma and inner conflicts. I believe that these two methods are the best for treatment because disorders are normally cause by something psychological. I don't believe that medication is necessary for many of the disorders (with the exception of schizophrenia or OCD). I truly believe that deep cognitive issues are the cause of most disorders. And these two approaches are the best ones to unveil those issues and therefore have the best chance of treating the disorders. I chose this article to add to my portfolio because it draws a distinct line between fear and anxiety. Fear is a state of immediate alarm in response to a serious, known threat to one’s safety. And anxiety is a state of alarm in response to a vague sense of threat or danger. The article exemplifies the difference between these two very well. The fear/anxiety response is both useful and adaptive. We are hardwired to protect our self which is why we have a response called the "fight or flight". This response is used to determine whether we should stay and protect ourselves, or simply flee when presented with a dangerous situation. This response is triggered by the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is responsible for getting your body ready for stress, and also calming it down after stress. However, when your fear is triggered by inappropriate situations or lasts too long, that is when it becomes anxiety and can even become debilitating. Anxiety can commonly be described as vague, intense concerns and fearfulness. I learned, both from this article, the textbook, and the notes from class, to accurately distinguish between fear and anxiety. This article also went beyond that and explained how fear could become anxiety very easily. I included this clip in my portfolio because it addresses the amount of disorders that individuals can be diagnosed with. Psychologists are coming up with more and more disorders to put into the DSM that don't even seem like real disorders. There is certain criteria that needs to be met in order for something to be considered a disorder. One thing is that the problem has to be interfering with daily life functioning. And another thing is that the problem has to be causing distress to the individual. These are just two criterion of diagnosing someone with a disorder. Psychologists have to be careful because labeling someone with a certain disorder can cause lots of harm. First off, once you are diagnosed with something, that will forever be on your record. When you apply for jobs or for school, your disorder will always be there. This can keep you from doing things that you want to do. For example, say that you were sad for a few weeks in high school. If that had been diagnosed as depression, and you wanted to join the military, or be an astronaut, or something like that. Your diagnosis of depression may hurt you in that sense. I believe that some of the disorders in the DSM are simply things that life puts people through. I don't necessarily think that it should be labeled as a disorder. I say this because through therapy and counseling, most of these "disorders" can be treated and suppressed. Through watching this video, I realized that more and more people are wanting a diagnosis for their problems so that they have a reason as to why the way they are. People don't want to take responsibility for their problems and want to blame this on a disorder and get medication as quick as they can to make it go away and to make themselves feel better. This is not the answer to your problems. As a said before, putting these labels on yourself can be harmful, especially to your future. I chose to add this picture to my portfolio because I believe it accurately represents the process of a panic attack. Panic is a huge concept of anxiety disorders. Panic is defined as an extreme anxiety reaction that normally occurs when an extreme threat emerges. Panic can occur with all the anxiety disorders as well as in people who are diagnosed with any anxiety disorders at all. Panic attacks however are different. Panic attacks occur in the absence of a real threat. As the diagram depicts, Panic attacks seem almost like a heart attack. In fact, some individuals wont even know they've had a panic attack. They will believe that they were nearly had a heart attack. Because of this, the panic attacks will keep occurring until the root of the attacks are dealt with. However, if the individual knows that they have panic attacks, then they are constantly thinking about this and worrying about having an attack. In some cases, worrying about having an attack may actually give you a panic attack. As i said before, panic is a concept imbedded in all anxiety disorders. This diagram along with the class notes actually helps me visualize the actual panic attack itself. I have never seen someone have a panic attack nor have I ever had one myself and I think that it's really important to know the signs and be able to differentiate a panic attack from a heart attack. I chose to use this video clip in my portfolio because it shows how something as juvenile as video games can be addicting. It also shows how addiction can be considered a disease. This clip shows how some Koreans are addicted to video games. It also draws a thin line between the Koreans that play the video games because they want to enhance their skills and be the best, and the Koreans who become lost in the world of video games. Addiction can be defined as the continued use of a mood behavior despite adverse dependency consequences. The key part of this definition is "despite adverse dependency consequences". If addiction wasn't a disease, it would be implying that the addiction causes no distress to the individual nor does it inhibit everyday functioning. In this video, you see individuals that are deeply struggling with this addiction and even considering suicide. They wish they could stop, but they just can't, no matter what the consequences are. In this example, some Koreans will lose their jobs, their family, their whole life just to play video games. They've created a new life within the video game which is what they're addicted to. They rather live their life through the video game than actually live it in real life. It has shown that addiction also has to do with certain neurotransmitters in the brain that cause the release of certain endorphins when performing the activity that one is addicted to. This shows that addiction is not only behavioral, but also biological. I already believed that addiction was a disorder. However, this video solidified my belief and also backs up the information in the textbook about addiction. I chose to use this article in my portfolio because it exemplifies the seriousness of eating disorders this day in age. Eating disorders are becoming more and more common as the years pass. This is because of the emphasis we put on looks in our society. Now days, most people are worried about having the perfect look and the perfect body, which isn't realistic at all. Because of this, eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia are on the rise. In class, we watched most of the documentary THIN which follows several girls through their treatment of their eating disorders. Through this movie, I realized that the patients are definitely not the ones that benefit from eating disorders. Mostly, I believe that the doctors are the ones benefiting because they are the ones getting paid each time a patient comes in. Also, medicine companies are benefiting because people are always looking for medications to fix their problems. Americans are extremely over medicated. Many of the things that we take medication for can be more safely treated through alternate methods. This article shows how children as young as five years old are being diagnosed with eating disorders, and now the hospitals are benefiting off them as well. This is an epidemic that needs to be stopped and I don't believe that hospitals have the patients best interest. Once the patients get better, they leave and stop paying the hospitals. The hospitals do not benefit from their patients leaving and getting better. This is where the use of outpatient care comes in. This way, the hospital still gets money even though the patient is showing improvement. In some ways, I also believe that the parents benefit from this too because they no longer have to deal with their troubled child. Also, by putting their child in treatment, they feel better about themselves and feel that they are doing something to help instead of just giving up because of frustration. Eating disorders are caused by society and only benefit the hospitals, medicine companies, and the parents. And while all these people are benefiting from these disorders, the patient is suffering. I decided to add this pamphlet to my portfolio because it helps explain the difference between mood changes and a mood disorder. There are two key emotions on the continuum, depression and mania. Depression is defined as a low sad state in which life seems dark and overwhelming. Mania is defined as a state of breathless euphoria and frenzied energy. This pamphlet is specifically designed for the youth so that they can tell the difference between having a mood swing, or having a more serious disorder. The main difference between mood swings and a mood disorder is motivation and activity level. A person havning mood swings will still go to school, eat dinner, and watch some TV. However, a person with depression (most people with a mood disorder only experience depression) will not go to school, eat, or watch TV. They will spend most of their time in bed, probably sleeping. Also, depression lasts for a longer period of time then a simple mood swing where you're sad. On the other end of this, mania and happiness are not the same thing eiher. The main difference between these two would have to be judgement. During mania, an individual typically has poor judgement and planning mostly resulting in negative consequences. On the other hand, an individual that is just happy will still have their judgement and be able to reason and make good decisions. Although at times mood swings may seem like you have a mood disorder, that is definitely not the case. Mood disorders are much more severe and detrimental than a typical mood swing. Through this pamphlet and my notes I now have a clear understanding of the difference, I also now feel that I can explain that difference to other in language that they can understand by use of the pamphlet. I chose to add this quote to my portfolio because it completely captures my personal opinion about abnormality. I don't really believe there is such a thing as abnormality. I just believe that everyone was made different. Everyone has different skills, abilities, and challenges. I have a hard time defining abnormality because I don't really believe in it. However, if I had to define it I would say that abnormal is the individuals who fall on the tails of the bell curve. I don't believe in abnormality because it implies that when somoene is different, it means they are not normal. And I don't like the word normal because it is defined by the society we live in at the moment. It wasn't too long ago that homosexuality was in the DSM as a mental disorder. However today, many of us accept homosexuality with open arms and it is also no longer considered a disorder. That is just an example of how fickle society is. Basically what determines who's normal and who isn't normal is statistics. My belief is that math should not decide who's normal. The word normal or "abnormal" shouldn't really exist. This is just a way for people so separate themselves from things they see inferior to them. Although this quote isn't that long, it represents the ignorance and pride of the word "normal" and the hurtfulness of "abnormal" Slide 1: What is abnormality?
-Quote by Ugo Betty
Slide 2: Which model provides the best explanation and treatment of abnormal behavior?
-"Do Not Put All Your Beliefs In One Basket" Illustration
Slide 3: Can diagnosis and Labeling Cause Harm?
-"Are We Over-diagnosing Mental Disorders" Video
Slide 4: Illustration of Panic in Anxiety Disorders
-"Panic Cycle" Illustration
Slide 5: Distinguishing between fear and anxiety
-"Searching the Brain for The Roots of Fear" Article
Slides 6-7: Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders concepts
- "Woman Shows the Same Symptoms as Le Roy Teens"
- "Alters" Illustration
Slide 8: The difference between mood changes and Mood Disorders
-"Is it just a mood? Or Something Else?" Pamphlet
Slide 9-10: Who in society benefits from people being unhappy with their bodies?
-"Half of hospital patients with eating disorders are children..." Article
-"Eating Disorders Soar: One Woman's Campaign for Women to Cherish Themselves" Video
Slide 11: How is addiction a disease?
-"South Korea Gaming: Skill or Addiction?" Video
Slide 12: Human Sexuality
- Human Sexuality Illustration
Slide 13: Severe Mental Illness In The News
- "Man who stole school bus..." Video
Slide 14: Personality Disorders in Celebrities
- "20 Identifiable Traits of Female Narcissists"
Slide 15: Childhood Disorders and Race
- "Mental health problems more common in kids who feel racial discrimination"
Slide 16: Alzheimer's and Dementia Costs
-"Increasing dementia costs burns through 1% of global GDP" Video
- Final Reflection
- References Eating Disorders Soar: One Woman's Campaign for Women to Cherish Themselves I chose to use this video in my portfolio because it shows another group who benefits from eating disorders and individuals being unhappy with their body. Diet companies and make up companies are the two big groups that benefit the most from this unhappiness. When someone is unhappy with their physical appearance, they will do/try just about anything to fix that. This is where the companies come in. Many of the diets that these companies promote aren't proven to help individuals lose weight, and most of them aren't even healthy for you. While diet companies are attempting to "fix" your imperfections, makeup companies are attempting to covering it up. This is all caused by societies definition of beautiful. Who's to say that being stick thin or having long eyelashes is beautiful. As the video here states, media, such as magazines and TV, put a very large emphasis on looks. An an especially large emphasis on having "the" look. Companies take advantage of this and try to figure out how they can make money off you're insecurities. This is something that can only be changed by society. If media would switch its focus to loving who you are instead of putting so much value on being "perfect" (whatever that is), than companies would not be able to take advantage of people like they do now; misleading them to believe in things that most likely wont work, and that may even cause harm to your body. 20 Identifiable Traits of a Female Narcissist Mental health problems more common in kids who feel racial discrimination http://www.hookingupsmart.com/2010/06/28/relationshipstrategies/20-identifiable-traits-of-a-female-narcissist/ Ever since I took the class Psychology of Human Sexuality last fall, my idea of normal sexuality has forever been changed. My idea of "normal" sexuality now seems to be the societal expectations for human sexuality. However, if you don't follow society's definition of "normal" sexuality, that doesn't mean that you're abnormal, it simply means that you don't fit into society's definition. According to society, normal sexuality is a man being attracted to a woman and vice versa. Not mention that humans are also expected to be monogamous. Individuals that are homosexual, bisexual, or even asexual are looked at as being abnormal; which isn't necessarily true. Homosexuality can be caused by many things; environment, genetics, brain abnormalities. One single cause cannot be found which means that one single thing does not cause homosexuality. Humans also are not necessarily meant to be monogamous. A mans goal is to create as many offspring as possible, with disregard to who the children's mother was. Paternal issues only began to arise as private property came into the picture, and then came the problem of inheritance. Homosexuality is obviously the minority behavior, however, that does not make it abnormal. I chose this picture because it represents the main western belief about homosexuality; that God made Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve, and there for, homosexuality is a sin. Thanks to the Christian view that homosexuality is a sin, it is frowned upon, making it abnormal. Until the revision of the DSMIV, homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder. Because of this, it was believed that people can be treated or cured of homosexuality, which isn't necessarily true. The having an abnormal human sexuality is something that society implemented. Having a different preference doesn't make you abnormal. As you can see in this news clip, this man is portrayed very negatively. Not only is medication mentioned multiple times, but so is the topic of this man being institutionalized. How the news portrays mental illness is a serious issue and it the cause of many stereotypes regarding serious mental illnesses. Not many people are directly exposed to an individual with a serious mental illness such as schizophrenia. That being said, many people don't properly educate themselves and get most of their information from places like the news. Most of the time, the news does not show stories that are positive, because they are looking for good ratings. So if someone with a serious mental illness gets there PhD, the news doesn't care. However, when someone with a serious mental illness steals a bus, that's when the news shows the story. As I said before, there is always a big emphasis on medication and institutionalization. And in this news clip, there also seems to be a big emphasis on the fact that the law doesn't have more control over individuals with serious mental illnesses. For example, this clip briefly touches on the fact that the law cannot make them take their medication. This is now causing people to think that the law should be more strict when it comes to individuals with mental illness. However, the truth is that Americans are over medicated as it is and that institutions are very detrimental to an individual. Serious mental illness can be treated with proper therapy techniques, and perhaps small amounts of medication; but the news does not portray this. From this I learned that I should always get my information from a credible source and not let the biases of sources like the news effect me. I chose this article because it uses Paris Hilton as an example of a female narcissist. An individual with Narcissistic Personality Disorder displays traits such as an exaggerated sense of self-purpose, exploitative additives, and lack of empathy. They over estimate their talent and importance, convinced of their own great success, power, or beauty, and feel the need of much admiration. Paris Hilton exhibits all these traits. In the photo in the article, Paris Hilton is wearing her own clothing line, not to mention it's a shirt with her own face on it. Also, Paris is famous for basically being a professional socialite. She has absolutely no talent, and the most notable things shes probably ever done is make a sex tape. Behavioral and cognitive theorists believe that this disorder can be caused by being treated too positively rather than too negatively earlier in life. Im sure this is the case with Paris Hilton considering she's the daughter of the owner of a Multi-Million hotel company. She has almost no consideration of others, exemplified in hew TV shows as well as her arrests for DUI, among many other things. http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/children-who-feel-racial-discrimination-89333.aspx Increasing Dementia Costs Burns Through 1% of Global GDP What surprised me the most about this chapter is the rising costs of dementia. I used this video because it shows how dementia burns through 1% of the global GDP, which is billions of dollars a year. In 2012, the costs of dementia in the United States will total an estimated $200 billion dollars. The average Medicare payments for an older person with some form of dementia is three times higher than for an older person without these conditions. In the coming years, these costs are expected to continue to rise. By the year 2050, costs are expected to rise to around $1.1 trillion in today's dollars. Meaning that by then, it will be even more expensive. This is said to be caused by the baby boomer generation. As the children of the baby boomer generation begin to move into old age, more dementia will occur and the costs will skyrocket. It's scary to think that so much money is going to dementia and that it's only going to get worse. Also, a lot of caregivers such as daughters, don't get a lot of funding or help, a large amount of the financial strain is on the caregiver. This video helped me realize that without a cure, or even a treatment, the cost of dementia can drastically change the little economic stabilty our country has left. I chose this article because it shows the possible connection between mental health problems and racial discrimination in children. The study found that children who reported feeling discrimination were more likely to have symptoms of one or more of the following mental health disorders: depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Among Hispanic children, those who reported perceived discrimination were more likely to have symptoms of each of the four mental health conditions. And among African American children, those who reported perceived discrimination were more likely to have symptoms of depression and conduct disorder. In this study, it is implying that discrimination preceeds these mental disorders. However, my belief is that minorities are more likely to be diagnosed with mental illnesses, especially conduct disorder, because of the environment they grow up in. Some believe that conduct disorder is caused by lack of parental monitoring, inconsistent disciplinary practices, failure to use positive management techniques or teach social process skills, and failure to teach academic success skills. Which can all be associated with a low socioeconomic household in which many minorities live. This being said, when someone of a minority ethnic group goes to a therapist for similar symptoms they may be more likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder simply because of their ethnicity and assumed environment. Even though they may not necessarily have that disorder. This can be a problem because misdiagnosing someone can be detrimental to their lives. Not to mention that misdiagnosing a child could be detrimental to their development. Final Reflection I absolutely loved this project. Because we had to find outside sources, it has really opened my eyes about how psychology is everywhere and how there are also psychological issues in every aspect of life. Even though I, personally, may not have a mental disorder, they do directly affect my life weather it is financially or what I see in TV. Through my research, I learned a lot about biases in diagnoses, concepts of certain disorders, sources like the news are biased, what is considered an addiction, how outside companies benefit from disorders, and how stress can amplify the symptoms of almost all mental disorders. Because I have taken many other psychology courses, so the concepts weren't that new to me. However, through this project, I looked at these concepts more in depth and strengthened my knowledge even more. I believe that I learned more from doing this type of research and reflection than I would have from just taking a quiz or a test. For a quiz or a test, I would have simply just memorized the material and retained it long enough for me to take the exam. After the class was over, all that information would probably leave my mind. However, though this project, I had to actually take the material and connect it to something I found online or in an article. This way, since I used the information, I will definitely retain it longer and definitely understand it better. I am very happy and thankful that you decided to make the final and the midterm a cumulative project, and I would definitely advise you to continue it in your future classes!