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Global Interactions: The early modern Period 1450-1750
Transcript of Global Interactions: The early modern Period 1450-1750
Spain’s conquest of Latin America was not one movement but instead the conquest was carried out by several different individuals with governmental approval. In 1519, Hernan Cortes led an expedition to Mexico. Cortes and his army defeated the Aztec Empire with only a few hundred men, but it’s not because he had the best army in the word; it’s because of their guns and outbreak of smallpox and other diseases that they brought with them. In 1535, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas. With the fall of the Incas and the Aztecs, the Spanish were able to gain control of Mesoamerica and the South America except for Brazil.
The reason why the Spanish (and Europeans in general) were so successful in their conquest was because they had horses, better weapons, disease, merciless leaders and the native American’s disunity. The conquests that occurred in this region were overseen by leaders through agreements with their government. The leaders had to share a portion of their findings with the monarchs. Spanish America became a bureaucratic system. The monarchs ruled from Spain through viceroys (high ranking nobles that had legislative, military and judicial power). At a local level magistrates regulated taxes and labor.
The Spanish enslaved the Indians and controlled taxation and labor. By the mid 1500s, enslavement of Indians was prohibited except during warfare, but the government gave out land grants (encomiendas) to conquerors that used their Indians as a source of taxation or labor in place of slavery. This contributed to the continuing population decline of the Indians. The monarchs didn’t want new Nobilities to form so they tweaked the system; by the 1620s encomiendas had disappeared but continues Indians to be used for taxation and labor (like mining). Several Indians tried to escape these labors to other villages. Despite everything the Indians culture remained stable and Spanish culture was more mortified to Indian ways.
The majority of the population in Spanish America’s was involved in Agriculture, ranching, or mining. Important silver mines opened in the mid 1500s; Potosi and Zacatecas led to the creation of a lucrative urban center. Even though Spanish American remained an agricultural economy there were large populations of sedentary Indians (especially in area of desert climate). When the population of sedentary Indians declined Haciendas (Spanish rural estates) appeared. These estates produced grains, grapes, and live stock; Haciendas were the baseline of power and wealth for local aristocracy. Latin America became self sufficient when it came to food and material goods, but they had to acquire luxury items from Europeans. The discovery of mercury was also necessary for silver extraction. The government had a monopoly on the usage of the mercury. The industry itself stimulated the economy in general because it relied on food and materials for its workers. From the stand point of the world economy, silver was key. A board of trade controlled commerce and to protect the silver the Spanish organized and regulated a convoy system in which armed galleons were vital. The wealth from the silver mining went to state expenses and manufactured goods. It also contributed to inflation in Europe.
The Catholic Church influenced colonial culture, and learned though printing, architecture, schools and universities. 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 Portugal’s geographic location on the Atlantic Ocean and its long coasts with good harbors, made it a great kingdom for exploration. Prince Henry (Portuguese navigator) was determined to increase his country’s maritime influence and profit, and spread Christianity. Pedro Alvares was the first to reach Brazil in 1498; Portugal wasn’t too interested in Brazil (except for the brazilwood trees that lined the coast) until French merchants became interested. In 1532, Sao Vincent was the first colony established and nobles began to colonize other areas and sugar plantations were established. Brazil became the world’s leading sugar producers at the time. Ports developed due to the growing number of sugar plantations. African slaves worked on these plantations refining sugar. The Indian’s willingness to not back down was broken by military forces, missionaries, and the spread of disease. Society was built upon hierarchy. White land owners, merchants, and officials were at the top of the food chain in colonial life; slaves were at the bottom of the food chain. The middle class was a mixture of poor whites, Africans, Indians who were artisans, small scale farmers, herders, and other workers. The Portuguese created a bureaucratic administrative structure government with the help of a higher official that incorporated Brazil into an imperial system. Missionaries played an important role in colonial life; they ran mills, schools, ranches and church institutions. Brazil remained closely tied with Portugal. This was because there were no universities or printing presses at the time to stimulate independent intellectual.
During the mid seventeen century the Dutch, English, and the French established sugar plantations in colonies in the Caribbean. This resulted in the decrease of sugar prices and increase in the cost of slaves. Brazil lost its position as a dominant sugar producer, but in 1695 gold was discovered in Minas Geris. Settlements immediately formed in mining areas and production peaked in the mid 1700s. Gold and diamond mines led to settlements further inland; as the Portuguese continued establishing settlements, the Indian population continued to decline. This led to the weakening of coastal agriculture. The government was able to revitalize coast agriculture and control slave trade; meanwhile, mines stimulated farming and ranching. The resources that the Portuguese gained allowed them to import goods instead of creating industries for manufacturing. 1700 The Spanish and the Portuguese in Latin America The conquest, trade and commerce, and settlements created an extensive multiethnic region. The majority of people were mixed (castas) by the eighteenth century. The mixing of different racial groups through marriage (miscegenation) was the key in social development; a mestizo population (higher status than Indians) resulted from miscegenation. A social latter formed with Europeans at the top, mestizos in the middle and slaves and Indians at the bottom. The social latter coincided with the local economy along with a sense of identity, but society remained under controlled of Iberian patriarchal forms. Men had authority over women, upper-class women were typically confined to household duties but lower class women could participate in the economy.
Spain and Portugal discovered Latina America by accident and left a lasting foot print on the culture there---multiracial groups, manufactured goods brought into the region, mining and other European tradition that would have otherwise never been introduced to this region at the time. They both shared intellectual development in their colonies and creating changes in demographics and economic trends. The Spanish and Portuguese renewed their empires, but the long-term consequences led to their discontinuation. Both of the colonies were significant in the expanding world economy. The Indian populations that survived this transformation adapted to colonial conditions and multicultural distinctiveness, but still embraced their own traditions. Latina American products and goods remained in demand; its society maintained economic dependence on outside variables. The first Europeans, in the 15th century, to widely explore the African Coast were the Portuguese. While in Africa, the Portuguese created a lasting commercial tie between West Africa and Europe due to religious, commercial, and political reasons. Since the Portuguese were middlemen, for Asia and Europe, they expected to earn the political power in Europe that they were denied in previous years. Portugal also had intentions of finding grain and gold located in African cities on the coast.
Prince Henry, a Portuguese navigator, initiated the search on the West African coast. When they arrived, they had only one goal, to establish a secure trading relationship. During the mid 1400s shipments of slaves began to arrive in Portugal. By 1460, the Portuguese had explored the African coast all the way to Sierra Leon. By 1498, Vasco de Gama had rounded the Cape of Good Hope. During this time Portugal traded with the coastal West African middlemen. This trade included cowry shells and hardware in exchange for the gold, slaves, ivory, pepper, gum Arabic and ostrich feathers. Due to the resistance to European infiltration, the African coastline was unsuitable for large boats. This caused the Portuguese to take base on the islands off the coast of Africa and away from coastal ports.
There were many major effects of the Portuguese in Africa. European trade with the coastal Africans caused Africans, from the interior of Africa, to divert the flow of trade across the Sahara to the Atlantic Coast. The names of coastal areas (Cape Verde, Cape Palmas, Sierra Leone, and El Mina) are evidence of the legacy of Portuguese exploration. During their exploration, the Portuguese presented Africa with new world crops and expanded trading opportunities. 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 In the late 17th century, the Dutch followed the Portuguese in the control of the West African Trade. The Dutch captured Portuguese forts along the African coast. By the 17th century, the Dutch had a forty-boat fleet, owned by the Dutch West India Trading Company. The company traded on Africa’s West Coast during that year. Throughout the 16th century, there was a significant growth in Europe that allowed the Europeans to discover the African Coast on their own and expand their trading network. Engraving, pottery, textile-making, shipbuilding and metal trades grew in many European countries, but the Dutch were especially skilled and advanced in their technological discoveries.
The Dutch was successful in replacing the Portuguese because they had no interest in colonization or converting people to Christianity. This difference allowed the Dutch to dominate trade from 1600 to 1700. Unfortunately, the Dutch did not dominate trade for long. The French and English trespassed on the Dutch monopoly of the region, by using Dutch tactics. Like the Portuguese, the French created companies for the organization of trade to Africa and built new forts. The major thing that hurt the Dutch the most were the Navigation Acts. The Navigation Acts forbade the importation of slaves into English and French colonies. One of the main reasons for Dutch’s success as traders was that they were middlemen for other European countries. When denied this role, the Dutch suffered great loses of power in the slave trade. The Portuguese and Dutch in Africa Portugal started transporting African slaves overseas, to be used as forced labor. By the 1450’s, the Dutch, English and French landed on the African coast to begin trading and to participate in slavery. Throughout the 1500s the necessity for slaves increased due to the increase in agricultural settlements in the Caribbean and Brazil; for example, In Brazil, the Portuguese growth and processing of sugar required an abundance of capital and labor. Who better to fit the void than slaves? In 1680, Osei Tutu founded the Asante Kingdom; it became massively powerful because its leaders sold gold and slaves to Europeans in exchange for muskets and gunpowder.
Europe’s reasons for slavery was for acquire Africa’s resources. Europeans made the natives do the labor-intensive jobs like planting, harvesting, and refining sugar; but this was not as effective as using African slaves because natives knew their way around and could escape easily. Also, African slaves were genetically better built for intensive labor then the natives were. The affects of slavery, in the 1600s, is still evident in both Africa and Europe. During the slave trade, Africa lost millions of strong men and women causing Africa to be underdeveloped and looked upon as poor. The Slave trade made Europe rich. Companies prospered on the back of slavery and the profits from slave made products in the Americas, changed European landscapes, tastes and habits.
During the 1700, the slave trade had a significant toll on the social, political, economic and culture aspect of life. Politically, the slave trade encouraged the creation and expansion of states. The abolition of the trade led to the fast downfall of the states. The huge loss of population suppressed economic, social, and political advancement. Since slavers preferred young adult men and women, the technological breakthroughs and societal enrichment they could have produced never existed. The slave trade militarized societies in many parts of the continent, promoting warlord-entrepreneurs, who challenged the existing order with their quick wealth and violent methods. Economically, the slave trade favored people who lived from the rewards of slaving and invested the proceeds in horses and guns for further raiding, rather than in something that might have yielded greater benefit in the long run. Slavery also quickened the commercialization of African societies, adding much traffic to long-distance trade routes. Coastal slaves became fluent in European languages and adopted European dress and manners. Socially, it provided divisive. Successful slavers became very rich and powerful; ordinary folk had to tread carefully. Culturally, the slave trade caused African architecture to be influenced by European colonists, who built fortresses and residences in East and West Africa. Slave Trade 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 Slave Trade. 1450-1750. Photograph. Http://jklsciencelab.weebly.com Spain and Portugal: Explorations and Colonies. 1450-1500. Photograph. Map 16.1, Pg.352. Major Political Units of the World. 1450-1750. Photograph. Pg. 343 Prince Henry the Navigator. 1500. Photograph. Figure 16.2, Pg. 351. French, British, and Dutch Holdings. 1700. Photograph. Map 16.2, Pg. 353. Major Political Units of the World. 1450-1750. Photograph. Pg. 343 Portuguese Expansion and Major African Kingdoms. 1450-1500. Photograph. Map 20.1, Pg. 435