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Curriculum Theories Final Prezi

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Courtney Kalmbach

on 19 May 2013

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Transcript of Curriculum Theories Final Prezi

Beneath the surface Explicit Social Reconstruction and
Critical Theory Learner-Centered/
Progressivism Results: The fruit of my learning 2 'Core'
Ideologies of this course:
Social Reconstruction/Critical Theory
Learner-Centered/Progressivism Null What is 'stated' to be taught
-the learning goals of the course
In my opinion,
This is what is found on the syllabus
and in the guiding questions
This is the 'water' that helps our blooms of knowledge grow My Learning Tree The main ideas of Learner-centeredness were promoted through the readings, online conversations, and my own interpretation of the hidden curriculum:
The following illustrate my reasoning:
The use of the video of Caine's arcade-this is in my opinion the epitome of project-based learning and learner-centeredness
The importance of the whole child (Schiro, 2013) in forming identity-relates to the Valenzuela, Thornton, DuBois, and Laureau readings
Attempts to integrate home and school lives (Schiro, 2013) which relates to DuBois' idea of 'double-consciousness" as well as Laureau's research on child rearing and the relationship between this and the school as an institution
Learner is the center of education (Schiro, 2013) which relates to subtractive schooling and the value of the different identities of students
"The development of intelligence-what Dewey called growth-does not emerge from biology or genetics alone, it requires the resources of culture" (Eisner, 2002, p. 68) which relates to subtractive schooling in "Respect My Child" as well as main ideas from DuBois on race and Laureau on class.
Progressivm "was concerned with the social and economic inequities of American society and thought schools had a positive obligation to “change the social order: (Eisner, 2002, p.67) which relates to ideas presented in the Allen and Lewis readings in relation to critical pedagogy
"Group processes should be fostered so that children learn how to use collective intelligence to cope with problems in which their peers had an equal interest" (Eisner, 2002, p. 70). which directly connects to the other main ideology of this course that I just addressed: Social Reconstruction/Critical Theory

Overall, I believe "the potential for growth lies within people” (Schiro, 2013, p. 6) and that we as educators “either facilitate conformity or it becomes the practice of freedom” (Creativity Video, 59 seconds).
"A more critical multicultural education must not only seek to produce students who can think critically about their world, it must also endeavor to serve the larger goal of changing that world" (Lewis, 805

Returning to you quote in week 1:
"Curriculum in any time and place becomes the site of a battleground where the fight is over whose values and beliefs will achieve legitimization and the respect that acceptance into a national discourse provides" --Kliebard, 1995
I will continue to fight for an education that reaches, respects, and teaches all students with the end goal of freedom. by Courtney Maloney (Kalmbach) Hidden
The explicit curriculum is what we see on the surface but their is so much more underneath- it is like the tree we see above ground, but we cannot forget about the roots below

As Eisner (2002) says, "These messages are often numerous, subtle, and consistent. It requires a subtle critical analysis of text materials to discern the kinds of social values that are being promulgated within the materials that the students and teachers employ. These investigators have helped us understand how schools socialize children to a set of expectations that some argue are profoundly more powerful and longer lasting than what is intentionally taught or what the explicit curriculum of the school publicly provides" (Eisner, 2001, p. 88) I did not write this course, nor am I an expert in/ very knowledgeable about Curriculum Theory (besides what I have explicitly learned in this course), so it is much more difficult for me to know what was omitted from this curriculum.
Furthermore, I am not in the position to say that whether or not this information was/was not omitted by choice

Nevertheless, here are the ideas that I have about the null curriculum:
the course focused mainly on providing support to some of the ideologies while others did not surface after the first few weeks (ie. Religious Orthodoxy)
the course potentially omitted other less prominent ideologies
discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of the ideologies was mainly placed in the hands of the course participants-->this means that the main ideas/values in the discussion were a reflection of the values and ideas of us, the students. Inherently, there were ideas that were omitted (creating a null curriculum)
we did not study many other aspects of our identity in depth: culture (language), gender, sexuality, religion
. My funnel of take-aways:
Prompt 3 Step 2: Challenge systemic
White Supremacy Step 1: Identify the systemic White Supremacy "But the beautiful truth is that when we take all of the valuable aspects of life into consideration and when we respect all of our children’s legitimate interests in our educational planning, it becomes easier to teach the basic skills” (Noddings, 2008, p. 186) I plan to ask if I can share my 3 types of curriculum PowerPoint in a PD next year
I plan to propose school PD around the issue of subtractive schooling to expose the truth behind meritocracy and color-blindness
I am currently taking an Action Research course and plan to combine my learnings in both of these courses to conduct action research in my classroom and ensure that I am working to eliminate the ways in which my classroom is subtractive
I plan to work closely with the ELA-E Teacher next door to plan collaborative activities for our students-so that my students are not 'physically separated from other students simply because of language
I plan to transform my thinking by reading more works like DuBois and Laureau as well as those such as the Valenzuela, Thornton, "Repsect my Child", Lewis, all of these readings!
I would love any suggestions of readings you have! What is underneath? Why is this important? A fourth aspect of hidden curriculum One aspect of Hidden Curriculum Explicit Curriculum is just what is seen on the Surface Social Reconstruction
Learner-centeredness Explicit curricula of this course The Existence of
Different Ideologies Educators identify with these orientations Subtractive Schooling Laureau These ideologies influence who we are, what we believe, and it is all reflected in our teaching Curriculum is not easily defined We must be aware of the ways in which schooling is subtractive in that it 'takes something away' from our students' identities
When looking at this course it was a little difficult to decide what exactly the hidden curriculum was because I think that we all learned from this course in our own ways, and our previous knowledge, values, ideas all influenced that learning. Therefore this is my perspective and is not representative of all the hidden curriculum of this course It is now our turn to be on the other end--looking at it from a student perspective “It is something one senses” (Eisner, 2002, p. 96) In reference to hidden curriculum: “And because they are salient and pervasive features of schooling, what they teach may be among the most important lessons a child learns” (Eisner, 2002, p. 97). whether or not we are aware of it, it is there, and it plays a role in our learning and affects what we actually learn from the curriculum--whether it is positive or negative Based off of the readings, the discussions, and the assignments I believe that the message that has been conveyed is that
Certain ideologies are 'better' than others.
They are the following: A second aspect of hidden curriculum Explicit Curriculum

The aspect of curriculum that, in my opinion, 'weighs' in the least when it comes to learning. It is like presenting data without any interpretation--the interpretation is up to the student and is influenced by the null and hidden curriculum----> The scale of curriculum Another aspect of hidden curriculum that surfaced for me in the course relates to the fact that I am white. In relation to some of the readings I believe that if I am not actively trying to be anti-racist and reflecting on my white privilege than I am essentially being "racist". This 'hidden' piece of curriculum is exemplified in the following quote:
“the white person needs to accept and admit that he is the oppressor, that is, he is necessarily racist as a consequence of his structural and epistemological standing as a member of the white race” (Allen, 2004, p. 129). Hidden Curriculum: one of the factors that carries the most "weight" in influencing learning outcomes Null curriculum: “It is my thesis that what schools do not teach may be as important as what they do teach”
(Eisner, 2002, p. 97) This course did promote certain ideas/values more than others-these will be presented next. Also, I learned that as teachers "We should ensure that omissions are not because of ignorance but a product of choice" (Eisner, 2002, p. 98). and that we should always present of variety of perspectives to minimize bias. Here is the definition I wrote in week 1:
Curriculum is based off of planned and decided upon goals/objectives that are taught in a certain context, measured along the way, and used to achieve desired learning outcomes. Curriculum is a plan to teach these objectives and can consist of materials, resources, teacher knowledge, learning experiences, activities, and so forth. Curriculum is used to answer the questions: What should be taught (what is most valuable)? I also think that curriculum can seek (and should seek) to answer the questions: Why should these this be taught? How should we teach/how should something be learned? We all have different definitions of curriculum that inform our beliefs about education and play a role in the teachers that we are
The Schiro book states in relation to Learner Centered proponents, “They believe schools should be enjoyable places where people develop naturally according to their own innate natures” (Schiro, 2013, p. 5). In being a preschool teacher, this is one of the core beliefs that I hold in regard to education.it is most of my students’ first experience with school, I want to ensure that it is enjoyable, that they fall in love with school (as I did in my schooling). In fact, this is a large part of why I was drawn to this profession in the first place: I want to instill the desire to learn and I want to stimulate the curiosity in my students because I believe that it is the driving force behind construction of knowledge. I previously read Pedagogy of Freedom by Freire (1998) and found the quote very descriptive of my ideas of curiosity “ As a teacher, I ought to know that I can neither teach nor learn unless driven, disturbed, and forced to search by the energy that curiosity brings to my being” (80).
I am also a big advocate for teaching the whole child:Furthermore the book stated in regard to the Learner Centered ideology, “The goal of education is the growth of individuals, each in harmony with his or her own unique intellectual, social, emotional, and physical attributes” (Schiro, 2013, p. 5). The orientations that we learned about through the Eisner and Schiro readings:
Religious Orthodoxy
Goal: to pass on God’s word-not to cultivate a critical attitude (Eisner, 2002)
Rational Humanism / Scholar Academic
Goal: to teach only the best of human knowledge (Eisner, 2002)
Learner Centered / Progressivism
Goal: incorporate nature of human experience and intelligence, the other is social reform (emphasizing on one hand the personal, and on the other hand the political) (Eisner)
Social Efficiency
Goal: "Educators are educational engineers who design and implement educational programs that shape the behavior of people in much the same way as industrial engineers design and manufacture railroad rails from steel" (Schiro, 2013)
Goal; "deep respect for personal purpose, lived experience, for the life of imagination, and for the forms of understanding that resist dissection and measurement" (Eisner, 2002,p. 77).
Critical Theory / Social Reconstructionism
Goal:"Critical theorists aim to “raise the consciousness of unsuspecting parents, students, ad educators to the insidious and subtle ways through which an unequal and often unjust social order reproduces itself through the schools” (Eisner, 2002, p. 73).
Cognitive Pluralism
Goal:what should be taught is influenced by the plurality of knowledge and the unique functions of different cognitive forms (Eisner, 2002) In researching the various definitions of curriculum in week 1, the idea that intrigued me the most was included in Cronbleth’s (1992) definition:
“Cronbleth defines curriculum as answering three questions: what knowledge, skills and values are most worthwhile? Why are they most worthwhile? How should the young acquire them?”(Definitions of Curriculum by Scholars in the Field p.1).

These are some of the most pressing questions that directly relate to creating a Culturally Responsive Curriculum. However, the answers to them are not agreed upon. As you quoted in your post in the first week 1:
"Curriculum in any time and place becomes the site of a battleground where the fight is over whose values and beliefs will achieve legitimization and the respect that acceptance into a national discourse provides" --Kliebard, 1995 The following are the different ideologies that were presented in this course and a 'main idea' of each: At the start of this course I closely aligned to the
Learner-centered and Progressivism ideologies. Progressivism: There are many aspects of the progressivism orientation that spoke to me. One of the main ideas that spoke to me was the idea that “intelligence is not fixed. Human life is a continuous process of constructive adaptation” (Eisner, 2002, p. 68). Furthermore, “The development of intelligence-what Dewey called growth-does not emerge from biology or genetics alone, it requires the resources of culture” (Eisner, 2002, p. 68). There are so many different factors in each of our lives that are constantly influencing us. We are shaped by our experiences and we all have different life experiences, which is why we are all so unique. This reminds me of the power of ‘funds of knowledge” (Moll, et al.) in teaching students. In order for students to really learn something they must connect it to their schema. Futhermore, progressivism also supports the development of the whole child: “Mind and emotion are no longer regarded as independent” (Eisner, 2002, p. 69). Also, progressivism supports Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development in that teachers should “find the place within the child’s experience that will enable him/her to stretch intellectually while avoiding tasks so difficult that failure is assured”(Eisner, 2002, p. 70). There are so many different ways in which I find myself as a teacher supporting aligning with progressivism. Learner-Centeredness: In the Valenzuela article we learned about "de-Mexicanization, or subtracting students' culture and language, which is consequential to their achievement and orientations toward school” (Valenzuela, 1999, p. 83). We also saw this in Respect My Child through mention of the term ‘culturally deprived’, which in and of itself is subtractive, and implies that a culture is ‘lacking’. Furthermore, another prominent way in which we learned that ‘subtraction’ occurs is related to gender, which was made clear in the Thornton article. As a result of the explicit, null, and hidden curricula this course promoted two main ideologies Adler and Noddings On one hand Adler says:

“We are politically a classless society. Our citizenry as a whole is our rule class. We should, therefore, be an educationally classless society”
(Adler, 1982 p. 160).

“The best education for the intellectually best students is the best education for all” (Adler, 1982, p. 166)

Adler believes in equality of education-sameness in education for all Although not explicitly taught, much of this course addressed in a hidden manner the ideas of Equity vs. Equality.
In my opinion, a big part of the hidden curriculum was promotion of equity instead of equality--instead of seeing students as the same we see students as individuals with unique needs, interests, and contexts. Adler presented the idea that, “We are politically a classless society”? Our citizenry as a whole is our rule class. We should, therefore, be an educationally classless society” (Adler, p. 160). However, this was almost laughable to me. By being classless we are creating equality, but in my opinion, equality is not the end goal, equity is. Instead, we need to realize that we are society full of classes and that is one of the main issues that needs to be addressed. This brings to me to Adler and Noddings in these readings we saw that equality is something that can be negative---> Noddings:
"In its own effort to prepare children “equally” for participation in “democracy,”, the Paidea sacrifices a first principle of democracy: In the pursuit of eventual freedom, it denies students any freedom whatsoever in the choice of their own studies” (Noddings, 2008).

Noddings argues that the academically able would be engaging in academics for the wrong reasons “with loss of the joy that accompanies doing what one has chosen out of love to do” (Noddings, 2008, p. 166)

Noddings argues against the sameness of education for all
Equity is the key! DuBois .“In this historical moment, middle-class parents tend to adopt a cultural logic of child rearing that stress the concerted cultivation of children. Working-class and poor parents, by contrast, tend to undertake the accomplishment of natural growth” (Laureau, 2011, p. 3)

“there is a dominant set of cultural repertoires about how children should be raised” (Laureau, 2011, p. 4)
middle-class children are “trained in the rules of the game” (Laureau, 2011, p. 6).

Working class children "showed an emerging sense of constraint in their interactions in institutional settings” (Laurea, 2011, p. 5) Overall, I feel as if I was presented with many differing perspectives.
We looked at the different orientations from a neutral standpoint (at least I did)
We looked at a perspective of Race (DuBois, Allen, Lewis)
we looked at a perspective of Class (Laureau)
we briefly looked at culture, sexuality (Valenzuela, Thornton)
We were presented with contrasting perspectives (i.e.: The Adler and Noddings articles)

Based on what I know, I think that this course did a good job of minimizing the null curriculum because I believe that the professors are aware that: "Without being aware of other alternatives-one cannot see through the lens of these perspectives and consider them as viable" (Eisner, 2002, p. 97)

In my opinion it is impossible to eliminate the null curriculum so my overall learning and main take-aways were influenced, in some way or another, by the null curriculum. . . As a result of this course, I have come to believe that these ideologies lend themselves to being less subtractive and more culturally responsive. This was influenced by the readings, my colleague's ideas of the ideologies, as well as my personal experiences. A third Aspect of Hidden Curriculum As a result of the discussions, readings, and ideas, an underlying theme for me is the idea that an excellent education includes aspects of Social Reconstruction
For example: it develops 'change-agent' skills in students Furthermore, as a result of the Laureau and DuBois readings, I have come to my own personal conclusions about my race and class.
Being white and from the middle class, I need to work to fight the 'blindness' I have. “It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness,--an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideas in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder” (Du Bois, p. 2-3).

"The white person needs to unlearn a lifetime of problematic white
subjectivity, ideology, and behavior. He needs to learn how to see the world
through new eyes that reveal the complexities and problematics of whiteness" (Allen, 2004, p. 130) “...the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second-sight in this American world,--a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world" (DuBois, 2013, p. 3) "I have called my tiny community a world, and so its isolation made it; and yet there was among us but a half-awakened common consciousness, sprung from a common joy and grief, at burial, birth, or wedding; from a common hardship in poverty poor land, and low wages; and above all, from the sight of the Veil that hung between us and Opportunity” (Du Bois, 2013, p.45) Race as a barrier to opportunity:
One example: “The function of the Negro college, then, is clear: it must maintain the standards of popular education, it must seek the social regeneration of the Negro, and it must help in the solution of problems of race contact and cooperation. And finally, beyond all this, it must develop men” (p. 70).
In this I see the belief of “School as the institution of change” and that “schools are the social institution through which leadership is provided and action is initiated to reconstruct society” (Schiro, Chapter 5). I also believe that Du Bois thinks that "knowledge carries with it social values” (Schiro, Chapter 5) which is also aligned to the SR ideology. Step 3: Transform White Supremacy Race as a lens forced upon the 'Negro' When analyzing the explicit, null, and hidden curricula these themes emerged that are directly quoted in Social Reconstruction/Critical Theory: "A feeling of commonality established among strangers as they share their personal experiences with each other while developing an understanding of the social crisis” (Schiro, 2013, p. 154)
Then they develop a vision of an ideal society that they might help construct to eradicate this
This is exactly what we are doing in redifining the idea of 'excellent education' in this course
The idea of a Commitment to action (Schiro, 2013) to share knowledge and act upon change
in this course we have been asked to discuss how we will take action on this learning
This course focused greatly on the hidden curriculum and the influence it has on learners (Schiro, 2013).
we were encouraged to address this hidden curriculum as both educators and students
The assignments had themes that supported the idea that: "Schools perpetuate or reproduce the social relationships and attitudes needed to sustain the existing dominant economic and class relations of the larger society" (163)
Also, the course supported the idea that all knowledge carries with it social values (Schiro, 2013)
we saw this through Laureau with the ideas of concerted cultivation and the accomplishment natural growth andthe fact that institutions such as schools align more closely to concerted cultivation
The idea of ‘emancipating” those affected by the schools from the school’s debilitating practices (Eisner, 2002, p. 73)
We discussed ways in which schooling is subtractive (Valenzuela, Thornton, "respect My Child")
The idea of reconstruction through education: Education happens at home, school, family, community (Schiro, 2013)
SR want to influence how education takes place in all of these locations and believe it is the job of educators to do so
Children as social agents (Schiro, 2013)
As we learned through Allen and Lewis. We need to teach with a critical pdagogy (Allen, 2004) so that our students develop a critical lens and are not 'color-blind' (Lewis, 2001). In order to complete step 1 I need to reflect on who I am.
I am white and from the middle-class and this daily impacts my thoughts and actions

"The first step in this process is that the white person needs to accept and admit that he is the oppressor, that is, he is necessarily racist as a consequence of his structural and epistemological standing as a member of the white race" (Allen, 2004, p. 129)

‘Conversion to the people requires a profound rebirth’
The rebirth of the white person to solidarity with people of color is a long and hard road, but it is certainly possible'(Allen, 2004, p. 129)
-This will be a life-long struggle and I plan to continue to read about, reflect on, and discuss these issues of White supremacy The need for equity and acknowledgment of differences I need to address the differences in the home microsystems and school microsystem of my students (Bronfenbrenner). I need to ensure that they are receiving an education that is best for them, that builds off of their 'funds of knowledge' (Moll, et. al) and their unique identities. As a colleague of mine once said, I need to plan and teach with my students' faces in mind. For my students this may be a different type of twoness (ie Mexican and American), but nonetheless a 'twoness' that I need to learn about and challenge the ways in which this the system perpetuates it In challenging this supremacy I know that I need to take risks. If I am afraid to make mistakes I will never change-it is more harmful to fear change than to take risks and make mistakes.
“We are now running systems like mistakes are the worst things you can make. We stigmatize mistakes” (Creativity Video, 30 seconds).
I see this as two-fold both applying to me and my students.
Fearing failure is something that I myself am guilty of at times. Yet, I think that if we teach students that mistakes are ‘bad’ we are teaching them to avoid failure. When they learn to avoid failure, they never take risks and I believe that risks are needed for change. This type of attitude encourages apathy and fear, both of which hinder change. We must teach risk taking and take risks ourselves so that we start viewing mistakes as opportunities to learn and change the injustices of the world. How I plan to transform: "Beyond cognitive changes, reborn whites must situate ourselves in opposition to
whiteness and risk our standing in the white community by becoming traitors to
the normative functioning of our group"
(Allen, 2004, p. 130) “It is often White’s lack of understanding of their own roles as racial actors that stands as a roadblock to further progress toward racial justice” (Lewis, 2001, p. 782). Take Risks We may find ourselves in opposition to those around us Transformation does not mean that we sacrifice the basics "There is no neutral position to take; one either decides to work against it or to go along for the ride"
(Allen, 2004, p. 130)
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