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Japan in WWI
Transcript of Japan in WWI
Garrett Wilton Before World War I Timeline Before World War I After World War I Militarism Alliances World War I Timeline Imperialism Of Japan Of Japan's Major Events Where It All Started 1854: American Commodore Matthew C. Perry traveled to Japan and threatened/ forced Japan to end their Sakoku Policy, this is known as the Kanagawa Treaty.
The Japanese Sakoku Policy was a policy of seclusion. Trade was very limited and regulated, as the Dutch were only allowed to trade with Japan. There were only 5 trade ports, and foreigners were not allowed to enter, nor could Japanese citizens leave the country.
Japan was now open to Westward imperialism
Perry's large warships/ modern technology left Japan intimidated and inspired.
Leaders in Japan realized that they no longer needed to be 'pushed around' by the powerful colonies in the West.
Japan needed an 'enlightened ruler' to strengthen the military, economy, and social structure to compete with the westernizing forces.
Combine Eastern traditions with Western practices. Fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa Shogunate: The feudal Japanese military government in which was controlled by the Tokugawa Clan.
Military nobility of the Samurai were responsible for the overthrow of the Tokugawa. After the revolt, the nobility did not have a distinct plan on how to run Japan. This rebellion against the government is known as the Boshin War. SEE TIMELINE.
A new era in place, known as the Meiji Era. This represents the shift in political power back to the Emperor as well the the formation of a new government.
1. 1868 Reform of the Five Charter Oath:
Established when Emperor Meiji took the throne
Oath outlined the goals and course of action that would be taken under the new government. These goals included the plans for expansion, westernization, and industrialization. (Organizing the future of Modern Japan)
2. 1869 New Government:
Central government was restructured to reinforce central authority (Emperor Authority)
Division of social and political powers was abolished
The new government was based on a National Assembly, Council of Advisors and 8 ministries: home ministry, foreign affairs, finance, army, navy, imperial household, justice, public works, and education. Decision making overall for Japan was under control of Emperor Meiji and a closed oligarchy of less then 20 people. This oligarchy consisted of the main individuals responsible for the overthrow of the Tokugawa, who also staffed the 8 ministries.
3. 1889 Meiji Constitution:
Signed by the Emperor
Objective was to share authority and give rights and liberties to his subjects (Constitutional Monarchy)
Emperor's power was shared with The Imperial Diet (in charge of domestic policy). The Imperial Diet consisted of a House of Representatives and a House of Peers.
This constitution signified the opening of the first parliamentary government in Asia.
The Emperor still holding the ultimate power- party participation was known as the political process. Overview:
1. Restored imperial rule back to Japan for the first time in over a millennium.
2. Japanese society shifted from feudalism to modernization through changes to Japan’s social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations.
3. Responsible for Japan's emergence as a modernized nation, a military force, and an imperialistic power.
Main Outcome: Industrialization and Modernization
Japan's rise as a military power by 1905
Domestic companies adopted and applied western technology to produce and sell cheap items in an international market (helped the economy)
Building of a national railway and improving communication methods
Migration of Japanese citizens from countryside to industrial centers
Industrial Revolution: First Asian industrialized nation, unified currency, banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchanges, and a communications network.
Japan took control of Asia's market - mainly with textiles.
Adopted British North American ways of free enterprise capitalism
Tokyo Arsenal: Manufacturing of small arms and ammunition
Foreign military systems studied (advisers from Europe brought in, cadets sent abroad) Meiji Restoration
1868-1912 Taisho Era
1912-1926 Taisho Political Crisis: After the death of Emperor Meiji in 1912, the crisis was a one-year period when Japan tried to restore the balance between powerful nobles (oligarchy), the ministries, and the public.
Emperor Taisho was the new throne, he appointed Katsura, a former prime minister, to form the new government. Katsura lost the hope and confidence of the people therefore he was voted out of power by the public.
Citizens began to ask for more voice in the government and more social freedoms. Soon after, the Japanese political system became much more open compared to the Meiji Era.
Record breaking economic prosperity during the Taisho Era; Japan emerged as a modernized booming society in the world. Japan had independence, efficiency, materialism, and individuality.
Political parties much more influential - could appoint their own Prime Ministers between 1918 and 1931.
This era is known as the Taisho Democracy Boshin War 1868 1894 Saga Rebellion First Sino-Japanese War 1874 Russo-Japanese War 1904 Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902-
1923 Between: Tokugawa Shogunate and the powerful noble individuals (oligarchy).
Why: Fighting for the power of Japan. Tokugawa Shogunate wanted to remain a political tyranny, but the nobles wanted to bring imperial rule back to Japan.
Cause: Samurai and noble's dissatisfaction with the Tokugawa's response to the abolition of seclusion (Treaty of Kanagawa).
Samurai and Court Officials convinced Emperor Meiji of the importance of securing control of the imperial court, as well as of the importance of being a military power.
120,000 men mobilized during the war
1000 Samurai were killed
3000 Shogunate's were killed
The victory of the nobles brought imperial rule back to the Emperor
Imperial rule adopted a policy of westernization and modernization
Renegotiation of the Unequal Treaties: A treaty signed with Western Powers after the defeat of Japan's seclusion policy)
Unified Japan under Emperor Meiji's rule
The beginning of the Meiji Restoration Between: Former Samurai class and the new Meiji government
Why: Rebellion of the Samurai class for the new Meiji government to reform their changes
Cause: With the Meiji Era, the social classes were eliminated, therefore making the samurai equal to the rest of the nobles in Japan. With the equalization of people, the samurai's income was eliminated, and their confidence was ruined with the formation of a new military system. The samurai rejected the thoughts of westward expansion and imperialization.
Young Samurai formed a politcal party which contributed to the influence of militarism and also the invasion of Korea. Therefore this was a contributing factor to the First Sino-Japanese War. Between: Qing Dynasty of China and Meiji Japan
Why: Competition for the control/ influence of Korea
Causes: From Japan's emergence and transformation from a feudal state to an industrialized nation-state. In order to protect Japan's economy, security, and political structure, it wanted to add Korea to the Japanese Empire, or at least secure Korea's own independence from any other western power. Japan also wanted Korea's coal and iron ore for economic benefits.
Japan- Korea Treaty of 1876: Japan forced Korea to open trade ports of Korea for Japan, and persuaded Korea to claim independence from China.
Japan recognized China's weak economy and military force from previous wars, and figured that this would be the best time to gain Korea's loyalty.
35,000 Chinese soldiers wounded or killed
5000 Japanese soldiers wounded or killed
Japan's sphere of influence expands into Korea
Japan's influence expands into Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, and the Laiodong Peninsula. Between: Russian and Japanese Armies
Why: Competition for the control of Manchuria and Korea
Causes: Negotiations were made between Russia and Japan after the first Sino-Japanese War, but they fell through and Japan chose war to officially gain control of Korea. Russia’s influence entered North Korea, and would not withdraw from Manchuria as well. Japan extended a negotiation for Russia involving spheres of influence (division of the area). Russia was overconfident, thinking that they would easily defeat Japan, and this victory would kick off the internal strength and growth of Japan. Japan broke off the negotiation, then two days later attacked a Russian port to declare Japan’s strength as an imperializing power.
Forced Russia to stop imperializing the Far East
First Asian power to beat a European force
The defeat of Russia by Japan left Russia discouraged with the thought of further fighting to be unnecessary. Russia issued the Treaty of Portsmouth to signify the peace between Russia and Japan, which was agreed upon by Japan as well. Between: Britain and Japan
Why: To assist one another in both of their interests in Korea and China Territory
This alliance was directed to face the Russian expansion in the Far-East territories. Britain served Japan during the Russo- Japanese War, as France was strongly discouraged by Britain to join the war on Russia’s side. The alliance was renewed in 1905 and also in 1911 when Japan expanded the Japanese Empire into Korea. China vs. Germany 1914 1916 Twenty-One Demands Japan & Russian Treaty 1915 Special Squadrons 1917 War With Economy 1918 Aftermath 1919 Proposal from Japan to the United Kingdom- Japan would enter the war in the Entente alliance if Japan could gain German ports in Pacific Territories.
August: Britain asked for Japan’s help in defending the Chinese waters from Germain raiders.
1 Week Later: Japan sent Germany an ultimatum before officially entering the war- was unanswered.
10 Days Later: Japan’s declaration of war on Germany. Refusal of withdrawal of the Austro-Hungarian cruiser ended with Japan declaring war on Austria/ Hungary as well.
September: Japanese forces invaded German- claimed territories. The first being on China’s Shandong Province, at the German settlement of Tsingtao. Navy Ministry of Japan acted independently from the civil government when they seized many of Germany’s colonies in the Pacific. (Marina, Caroline, Marshall Islands).
OUTCOME- Germans surrendered colonial territories in Tsingtao in November. Japan proposed the Twenty-One Demands to the Chinese Government
This was a bill which had intentions to make China a protectorate of Japan
Protectorate: In which a country still remains sovereign, but with the military protection of Japan. This protection would be exchanged for obligations from China.
Japan also proposed that upon agreement, China would disassociate with other European powers (not be involved with European influences in areas of China).
China signed this agreement, with reforms made, on May 25th. Russia and Japan signed a Treaty stating neither country would sign individual peace with Germany. This Treaty also made the countries agree upon collective action if a third party were to stand a threat to either Japan or Russia. By signing this treaty, Japan secured further dominance in Manchuria and Mongolia. Britain sent another request for Japan's help and involvement in the war.
The First Special Squadron was then formed from the Imperial Japanese Navy. Two cruisers of the Japanese Navy battleships were sent to Cape Town, South Africa.
The Second Special Squadron was much larger and sent to the Mediterranean Sea for collection in Malta, an island off the coast of Italy. The Second Squadron's main duty was to be an escort for troop transports and support of the Alliance's troops. Japan totaled around 700,000 escorted and transported soldiers via Japanese cruisers and destroyers. Over 7,000 soldiers were rescued from damaged ships.
The Third Special Squadron was formed to defend the Eastern coast of Australia and New Zealand. Japan was involved to capture and sink German raiders in the Pacific. After December 1917 the pressure to involved allied countries was less severe, therefore the efforts of the First Squadron took over the duties of the Third Squadron.
Japan continued to defend Australia, New Zealand, and Indian waters until October 1918.
Britain wanted to return the favor of Japan’s help, therefore Britain proposed an agreement for Japan. This agreement consisted of the recognition of Japan's territorial gains in the Pacific Ocean North of the equator (Britain would gain the Pacific territory South of the equator). American & Japanese Agreement Americans joined World War I for the Entente alliance as well. An agreement was made between Japan and America for peace between the countries even though there was past tensions for territories in China. Japan continued the expansion into Chinese territory. Japan’s European allies needed more war material such as explosives and guns, therefore Japan’s exports of these materials increased significantly. Due to the enormous capital expansion, the inflation of goods and services followed. This caused the 1918 rice riots in Japan. Japan gained a permanent seat on the council of the League of Nations at the Versailles Peace Conference. Japan’s official empire expansion into the German territory Shandong was recognized at the Paris Peace Conference. Japan's Full Political Independence Emperor Rule:
1912-1926: Emperor Taisho
1926- 1989: Emperor Showa
Prime Minister Rule:
1914- 1916: Okuma Shigenobu of the Rikken Dōshikai political party
1916- 1918: Terauchi Masatake of the Military (Army) political party
1918- 1921: Hara Takashi of the Rikken Seiyukai politcal party
1921-1922: Takahashi Korekiyo of the Rikken Seiyukai political party
1922- 1923: Katō Tomosaburō of the Military (Navy) political party
1924: Kiyoura Keigo, not being involved with a political party Japan and the 1920's Cabinet system of Japan was effective: favouring westward expansion and liberalism in Japan. All men could vote in 1925, and women in 1949. Westernized political parties were developing to give new life to the current political system of the Imperial Diet. Japan and the 1930's Japan was not a parliamentary democracy. Power fell into the hands of army and navy officers of the previous feudal samurai class. These military officials hated the idea of a liberal government, and used their knowledge to control the emperor; abolishing current political structure. A military dictatorship resulted; elections were held but the results were disregarded. A Prime Minister’s rule was more a figure rather than a power. The Great Depression affected Japan, as their exports dropped by 50 percent. The government was slowly transforming into a totalitarian state. This depression was at it’s worst from 1930-1932. The main governmental themes during this time were fascism, militarism, and nationalism of the states with a central, over-ruling government. Japan's Effort for 'No Depression' Japan tried to help their economic state by building up their empire. Japan invaded Manchuria, threw out the Chinese, and from this China asked for the League of Nations’ help. In 1933, the League ordered Japan to leave Manchuria. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933. During Meiji Restoration the shift of the main military power occurred from the Samurai to a more formal military.
Formal military: loyal to the central government rather than individual domains
A new, stronger military became vital to the survival of independent Japan from the western technologies and colonies.
Kato Takaaki was the head of foreign affairs until 1926.
Reforming the Military from Samurai to westernized:
Government enlisted nationwide conscription in 1873 which regulated that every male aged 17-40 must undergo the following:
1. 3 years of service
2. 2 years in the first reserve
3. 2 years in the second reserve Japanese Army Army Ministry of Japan (Ministry of War) 1872:
Controlled the official ground-based armed force of the Japanese Empire, which is known as the Imperial Japanese Army.
Emperor was the supreme commander of the Army Ministry
During wartime or national emergencies, Imperial General Headquarters would listen to the command functions of the Emperor. This body consisted of a chief/ vice chief of the Army General Staff, the minister of war, the chief/ vice chief of the Navy General Staff, and the inspector general.
A national army was essential after the abolishment of the feudal government and domains from 1868 to 1871.
Japan’s Army force was modeled after the Prussian General Staff
Army Reserves in 1914: 470,000
Mobilized in 1914: 380,000 Japanese Navy Navy Ministry of Japan:
Administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the third largest avy in the world by 1920
Planning and execution of the navy was established by the Imperial General Headquarters.
Navy Reserves 1914: 15,000
Navy Mobilized 1914: 48,000 Japan Was Imperialized Japan Imperialized Others Nationalism Significant Individuals Commodore Perry's first intentions of imperializing the Far East were the origins of Japan's Empire. Japan's Empire consists of military, political, economic, and social reforms nation-wide.
The Treaty of Kanagawa opened Japan's gates to physical properties of the world (textiles), as well as strategic opportunities of the world (learning, reforms, policies).
Matthew C. Perry and the American colonies are responsible for Japan's rise in power over the 20th century.
Japanese leaders and military students studied abroad to learn from European and American ways of society.
European nobles were sent to Japan to expand the global communications network.
Japan's ports were opened to trade, which boosted the economy.
Japan reformed the government structure to run similarly to a European constitution and division of powers.
Japan's military ability sky rocketed after the economic boom of the Meiji Era. Knowledge, advice, and intimidation from other leading militaries helped Japan shape the Army, Navy, and Foreign Affair Ministry. Once Japan emerged as a military power and industrialized, thriving nation, their imperialization of less significant countries followed. Japan wanted to imperialize other nations for security politically and economically.
Where Japan Imperialized or extended their influence:
Pacific ports such as Taiwan, Penghu Islands, Liaodong Peninsula
East Coast of China including Shandong and Shantung
Japan's hope to protectorate all of China for the future Before World War I Japan showed a unified nation before the outbreak of international war. The small disputes and common ideology of Japanese citizens before WWI only served as glue to the country when fighting for a stronger Japan.
Examples of Nationalism previous to WWI:
Tokugawa Shogunate and their dictatorial political control for Japan; involving their fight to stay in power.
The nobility of the Samurai fighting for a 'better' Japan. This included the Boshin War, or Fall of the Shogunate and the Fall of Edo in 1868.
The cooperation of all political members of the new government during the Meiji Restoration. The coordination involved the oligarchy, Emperor, Prime Ministers, ministries, and Imperial Diet.
Taisho Politcal Crisis of the people of Japan; the effort to stay strong and collective as a body of similar ideology for the country.
Rebellions of the Samurai against the new government and reforms in society (ultranationalistic).
The brotherhood present in the Japanese Army and Navy during the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese War.
The nationalism present between two countries, Britain and Japan, for their collective cooperation in supporting each other when they needed it. This also includes the agreements for land claims and imperialistic coordination of spheres of influence. Japan was aligned with the Triple Entente Powers. This included Russia, France, and Britain.
Other allies of Japan and the Entente included Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Australia, New Zealand, Romania, and Italy as of 1915.
The United States of America also joined World War I to support Britain and gain other territories around the World. During World War I The Meiji Restoration previous to World War I was the largest contributing factor to Japan's involvement as a unified and important force in the World. Due to this previous era, Japan had the ability to use their military might when showing nationalistic behaviour. The military policy and history of Japan made this country so able to perform, thrive, and succeed as a completely independent yet westernized leader.
Examples of Nationalistic Behaviour During World War I:
Japan's support of Great Britain's decisions and requests for assistance during 1914
Japanese Imperial Army's and Navy's collective decision to officially enter the war heavyhearted
The decision to finish what they started - did not withdraw from the alliance at any point, or lose the drive to help themselves. Japan wanted to expand their empire, and during this war they achieved exactly that.
Dedication to trade, stock markets, and other economic factors during wartime
Rice Riots of 1918
Most Significant Nationalism:
During World War I, Japan's most crucial nationalistic decisions involved dedication, loyalty, and influence. Dedication to achieve and conquer more then what the country ever imagined. Loyalty to the Entente alliance as well as other agreements previously made. Influence on Japan's own citizens to achieve better and expect better of themselves. Intimidation factor of Japan on other territories, as well as previously established European powers. Japan involved themselves in this war to make a reputation for their country; the military forces pursued this. After World War I After the Japan's involvement in the international war, the nationalistic thoughts and beliefs of the leaders and citizens continued. The nationalistic approach to expand the Empire to the West and continue to develop the economy, political policies, and social specifics was still in place, even if the democracy ratified to fascism.
The Most Significant Nationalism in the 1930s:
After the 'subtle' overtake of the Taisho Democracy, strong opinions and tactics were used to control and unify Japan again. The radical Army and Navy officials used nationalistic approaches to transform Japan from a depressed, struggling nation (1930s) to a world power once again. Therefore, these officials needed a collective identity to control Japan's politics, and these officials needed to collectively lead to lift Japan on their feet again. Japan resembled a tolitarian state with aspirations to influence other nations.
After World War I Japan had nationalism within the country, when also trying to display their hopes to thrust nationalism upon others. In Conclusion " Fukoku Kyōhei" or "Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Army" is the defining slogan for Japan's national interest. Japan's involvement during World War I, was entirely strategic as they were climaxing to the peak of the Japanese Empire's Era. Entering the war as a modern, industrialized, prosperous country, Japan only participated as opportunists. Japan's true transformation took place during the Meiji Restoration, accordingly thanks to Commodore Perry, Samurai nobility, and Emperor Meiji. Before this time of differentiation, Japan had little nationalism, imperialization, or even contact with the other countries of the world. Japan's key description of 1860 would be isolation. Isolated from trade, isolated from opinions, and most importantly isolated from technology and military efforts. Japan's security before the time of Meiji could be described as safe, yet dangerous. They were safe due to their lack of a reputation and still in danger due to their dated military, poliitcal structure, and communications network. Meiji Restoration, of key years being 1868 to 1872, brought power to the people, power to the economy, and power to the military. Japan's national interest or ambitions took a drastic turn for the successful during the Meiji Era, leading into World War I. During WWI, Japan saw great success and little failure. Making international connections, agreements, as well as trade and imperialization negotiations, World War I was Japan's time to shine as a "new" country with their head on straight. Trying to be the best aligning power possible, Japan supported Britain, USA, New Zealand, Australia, and France, while trying to help themselves as well. The Japanese Empire expansion did not end once the war did. Depression of economy, hopes, and beliefs may have occurred, but Japan wanted to capitalize on this. From conquering many territories in the 30s and 40s, Japan was motivated from the beginning. The leaders of this great country kept the fight in the hearts and minds of the people, strongly encouraging nationalism to carry on. From the words of Prime Minister, Ōkuma Shigenobu, "The fate of the Empire rests on this enterprise every man must devote himself totally to the task in hand."
Emperor Taisho-was emperor during WW1 though he did not play a substantial role in Japanese politics.
Mitsumasa Yonai- was Lieutenant Commander during World War 1 which put him at the height of naval command during 1915-1917.
Yamaya Tanin- was an Admiral who was assigned to command the southern seas. He is responsible for the occupation of Yap & Caroline which were two key German ports.
Ōkuma Shigenobu- was Prime Minister at the beginning of World War 1 . He is also responsible for the Twenty- One Demands with China.
Matthew C. Perry- Played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa.