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Ceramics - Miss Allen

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Chantelle Eloise Allen

on 21 January 2019

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Transcript of Ceramics - Miss Allen

Earth, Water, Fire
Clay is created as a result of the decomposition of igneous rock which makes up the entire earth's crust.

Igneous rock is produced when rock that is melted by volcanic heat cools and hardens

Granite is produced from this volcanic activity.
An essential element of granite, feldspathic rock, or feldspar, is the geological basis for clay.

Origins of Ceramics
Figurines - Notes for Sketchbook
The Indus Valley Culture flourished
around 2500 BC in present day western India and Pakistan.

What do you think some of the symbolic meaning may be?
Located on the mouth of the Amazon River in Brazil, Marajo Island is one of the largest river islands in the world. The oldest pottery fragments in ancient America are also from this region.
The 6 Stages of Clay
1. Slip - watered down clay in a muddy form
2. Plastic - easily workable stage
3. Leather Hard - stiff and will hold shape. can join to other pieces and be carved in to.

4. Greenware - bone dry - can be carved into - very fragile and ready for Bisque Fire

5.Bisqueware - fired greenware/bone dray clay - cannot be recycled and ready for glazing
6. Earthenware (Glazeware) - second fire - cannot be recycled

Moisture, Plasticity and HEAT
Platelets, or crystallographic structures give clay the ability to hold together while being shaped, giving it a plastic quality.

Ceramics i
Miss Allen - Snover

Populer Pottery
Forming Clay
- wedging
- pinching
- coiling
- slab building
- molding
Ancient Egyptian Gods; Taweret
Protector of childbirth and children
Lesson 1 - Create your own stamp signature and Pinch Pot Design with symbol
Examples of Shapes and Forms
Creating your own Signature from Clay - Lesson 1
Creating your own Coil/Pinch Pot - Lesson 2 - Symbolic Narrative Vase, Nesting Bowls or Planter
Using either the coil and/or pinch pot method, you will begin to create your design that you drew out.

Once you have built the basic pot you will begin
to build your symbol and/or attached piece.
Once your pinch/coil pot is leather hard, then you will attach the symbol with slip and continue adding detail and refining your craftsmanship on your piece.
Dragon Teapot by Johnson Tsang - Hong Kong artist
A dragon literally crushed the vase
Richard T Notking,
Heart Teapot: Anatomy Lesson 1987

Using the pinch method, you hand-build forms by squeezing clay between thumb and fingers.

Japanese ceramic art forms are ideal examples of this art.

The product usually has a natural or organic quality marked by variations in balance and shape.


Like the pinch pot method, coiling has existed since the beginning of ceramics.
Coiling is a much more versatile technique than pinching.

Contemporary arts and crafts potters as well as traditional African and Native American potters still use the technique

Using the coil method, you hand-build forms by rolling clay into long, thin pieces like a snake or a rope. Potters usually use coils to build circular forms.

Coiling allows you to build a large pot fairly quickly

The Influence of Tea in Ceramics
Read and Answer Questionaire
Lesson 3 - Relief Tile
Learning Objective: Design a relief tile that incorporates TEXTURE as an element of art and PATTERN as a principle of design.

Step 1: Brainstorm 15 different textures found indoors and outdoors. Draw them and label them. Choose the best design to develop into a finished drawing with shading and blending to give the illusion of depth.

Step 2: Critique drawing in groups and adjust accordingly

Step 3: Roll out a 7" x 7" square slab and begin construction of relief tile.
Tile Making
Tiles from Isnik

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Isnik was the principle tile-making enter in the Ottoman Empire.

The Golden Age of Ottoman Art

The tile makers of Isnik supplied the brilliant tiles for the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

As with other forms of Islamic art, geometric, plant, and animal motifs dominate the decoration.
This art form spread across Persia (Iran), Syria, and Turkey to Spain with the Moorish occupation in the eighth century.
By the twelfth century, tiles were used in Portugal and Italy along the Mediterranean, and north to Holland Germany.
The Spanish brought it to Mexico when they came to the New World in the 1500s.
we still use tiles to beautify homes and public buildings
Handmade tiles tend to warp - reduce shrinkage by using a clay body containing grog or sand
cut grooves on the back 1/8" deep and spaced about 1" apart for a good bonding surface
Dry tiles as slowly and evenly as possible. Place a flat board on top.
Add relief at the leather hard stage
Lay the dried tiles on flat kiln shelves sprinkled with a thin layer of sand to allow for movement as the tile shrinks.
Increase kiln temperatures at a slow rate during early firing.
Relief is an image that has been carved, modeled, or molded onto a fixed background.
Casas Grandes Revival
Read and Answer Questionaire
Now that you know how to coil and slab, you can create your own pieces using designs from a culture of your choice or your very own heritage.

You will begin to do research on a specific culture. You may choose to look at many different cultures before you decide on the one you would like to use.

Once you have decided on your specific culture, you will need to do 6 thumbnail designs using the patterns of your chosen culture.

Then you will do a finished drawing of final and best idea
and finally begin to build your pieces out of clay.

REMEMBER: If you are doing lanterns, identify the areas that will be cut out in your final drawing with darkly shaded pencil as the negative space.
Slab, coiled or Thrown cultural Set of 3, Lantern or Fountain

a regular arrangement of alternated or repeated elements (shape, lines, colors) or motifs
Native American
African Pottery
The arrangement of elements to give the viewer the feeling that all the parts of the piece form a coherent whole.
Johnson Tsang
-blue and white ware - cobolt blue on porcelain
-early as 9th century, China
- 14th century export of cobalt from Persia created a mass production
- Cobalt blue considered precious commodity - value 2x gold
-known as Jingdezhen ware
artist's stamp
lesson 1
Your artist stamp will be your signature for
every project you do in class. Make sure it
reprsent you well and has a specific meaning
to it. Make sure to have a clean, simple design.

Step 1: Brainstorm ideas for your stamp in your
sketchbook. Design at least 15 different
styles to choose from.
(all ideas have to be originally yours)

Step 2: Decide on best design (partner critique)

Step 3: Lightly draft out final design using
a sharp pencil.

Step 4: Draw out a handle for your stamp that relates
to the actual stamp. (use the full sheet of paper and add shading)

Begin Construction
Top of tool = 1 cubic inch
Base = no larger than 2 cubic inches
Length of Tool = no longer than 5 inches

country to country
Early Techniques
removing impurities;

Early potters dug raw material out of the ground, dried it out in the sun, sifted impurities out and then added water back in.

Decanting: adding water to the clay and then pouring the liquid (slip) from one container to another. This causes the courser materials to sink to the bottom

Levigation: clay is prepared as a slip and allowed to flow slowly down a gently slopping channel.
Finer particle low over a lip and the end of the channel, while the coarser particles settle behind.

Demo. and Practive
Drying Clay
Burnishing: rubbing or polishing surface with a smooth stone or spoon to make it watertight and shiny
Incising: carving or cutting the surface with a sharp tool
Impressing: uses an object to press or stamp a design into the clay
Combing; marks the surface of the clay with uniform lines
Decoration could enhance the clay's beauty, tell a story, or communicate religious beliefs
glazing makes pots watertight and easy to clean
enhances their aesthetic qualities
thin coat of glass on pot
glaze fuses to the surface of the pot at a high enough temp.
colors depend on chemical composition o the glaze
earliest pottery was fired in open fires or cooing hearths. (temp. 500degrees - 800degrees)
changes the physical state of clay mineral crystals into a hard, stable medium.
When clays are heated above these minimum temps, they become ceramics.
Early methods are still used in Asia, South America, Africa and other areas
Open firing: vessels and fuels are set together
Kiln firing: vessels and fuels are separated

Open Firing
Kiln Firing
enclosed structure like an oven or a furnace designed to withstand very high temperatures for firing ceramics.
Early kilns were made of stone plastered with clay. Later, they were constructed of brick or adobe.
Updraft kiln
consists of a firebox with a chamber directly above the kiln. Ancient Greek, Roman, Mediterranean, and Islamic pottery was fired in updraft kilns.
Downdraft kiln
China and Japan - large kilns into hillside with several interconnected downdraft chambers
accommodate great quantities of pottery
efficient use of heat produced
controlling atmosphere of kiln is important to prevent cracking orexplosions.
Greek Narrative
Narrative Art tells a story and the Greeks were the first to paint on clay pots as a way of telling stories
They painted action scenes featuring the human figure
During the Greek classical period, figurative imagery reached a high point.
Ceramic artists painted elegant pots with monsters, heroes, and mythological figures.
7th century BC - black figures crafted on pots natural red background are incised
5th century BC - red figure style
ancient America narrative
Moche, a people on Peru's north coast
had not writing system
AD 50 to 800
applied fine lines to the pot with clay slip
Mayan classical period (AD 250-850)
multicolor painted ceramics that detailed religious themes, rituals and history
slab slumping, Humping and coiling
symbols and there meanings
Artists working today
potters from the Past
Steps in Creating a coiled narrative pot
Draw 5 different types vases and 5 types of bowl shapes
that could potentially turn into your piece onto a full sheet of drawing paper (Page 1)
Brainstorm at least 5 different narratives or symbols
that could be used on your piece. These could be made up stories from your imagination or actual folk or mythological references and draw them out using full page (Page 2)
Choose your best shape for your pieces and your best narrative or symbol to combine them in a finished draft with shading and details
of what your piece will look like once it is complete. remember to draw how the narrative will wrap around your piece and come off your piece or the inside of the bowl with the narrative. Label and show what will be 3 dimensional (coming off your piece) and what will be carved into your piece.(Page 3)
Incorporating the Element of "Line" into your narrative piece
What is "Line"?
Lines that help us understand what we are seeing. They include outlines, contour lines, single lines and hatching.

lines that suggest an edge rather than clearly defining one. Implied lines occur where textures, colors and values change at edges of shapes.

Lines that send us a message about what the artist wants his or her work to make us feel. Abstract lines which are expressive , may not show us objects we recognize but may still create a feeling in us.
implied lines
descriptive lines
expressive lines
1. The ancient Egyptians made jars to hold the organs of the dead as part of their rituals relating to beliefs in the afterlife.

2. The ancient Greeks made large vessels to hold their harvest grains.

3. The Jomon people were a preliterate Japanese culture around 9000 to 300 BC.

4. The word jomon means "cord-impression pattern."

5. In addition to surface coils, the pots incorporate designs that are impressed or incised into the clay.

6. Warm currents influenced the climate resulting in luxuriant vegetation. The Jomon people thrived and enjoyed a peaceful and bountiful life.

7. Jomon pots served as storage vessels
Flame-Style Storage Vessel

Japan, Middle Jomon period c. 2500-1500 BC
Earthenware with carved and applied decoration, 22"
The Cleveland Museum of Art
Critical Thinking Question
" Why do you think making a storage vessel
aesthetically pleasing
may be considered valuable in a more

: the branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

: designed to be useful or practical rather than attractive
(please answer on the back of your questionnaire using 3-4 sentences)
warm up: Discovering Jomon Ware
Today's Goals
1. Begin Construction of Coiled
Narrative Vase with either a slab made from a slump or a hump from your bowl. Or just begin coiling your base using the bowl as support.

2. Continue to build onto your piece to create
interesting twists and turns using the coils

3. Don't forget to include your narrative story
either on the inside of your bowl or if it is a vase on the outside. This will be sculpted and pinched by hand and then attached using the scoring and slipping method.
Primary colors:  The three colors (blue, red, and yellow) from which other colors are made. The primary colors cannot be made from other colors.

Secondary color:   A color created by mixing two primary colors in equal proportions. The secondary colors are orange (made from red and yellow), green (made from blue and yellow), and violet (made from red and blue).

Tertiary or Intermediate colors:  Colors created when a primary color (red, yellow, or blue) is mixed with a secondary color (orange, green, or violet).

Colors that are next to each other on the color wheel (for example: green, yellow-green and yellow).

Directly across from each other on the color wheel

uses tint, tone or shade of one color and combines it with the colors that are on either side of the color directly across from that color on the wheel

color mixed with white
color mixed with black
color mixed with grey
Color Harmonies
Light that reflects off an object resulting in a specific part of the spectrum

Shape and Form
have length and width. There are two types of shapes:

Geometric shapes are the basic shapes we learn in kindergarten that are easily identifiable and have names.

Organic shapes are shapes we may be familiar with, but have no real names for, like “teardrop” or “blob” shapes.

Shapes are always flat.

In ceramics, shapes are often cut out of a piece as an opening or design.

is the 3-dimensionality of an object.

A form has length, width and depth, and casts a shadow. You can walk around a form, and sometimes even hold a form in your hands.

Ceramics is a form medium. All objects made in ceramics are considered “forms.”

Value is how light or dark an object is. Value is most easy to see when working with color.

In ceramics, value is also easy to play with when you begin glazing. Value adds depth to your work, and makes it much more interesting.

Texture is the surface quality of an object. There are two types of texture in art:

Real texture is when you can actually feel the bumps and lines on the artwork.

Implied texture is when an artwork looks like it feels a certain way, but is actually smooth.

In ceramics, real texture can be made by carving into your pieces. Implied texture can be created when using glazes.

Nuala O’Donovan

Space is how your artwork interacts with the room it’s in. Space deals with the distance between objects and around them.

In ceramics, you can use space to draw interest to your pieces, or use space to enhance their appeal.

Negative space is any open area which is surrounded or defined by the solid physical form (positive space) of the piece. Negative spaces are integral to the form and should be considered as important as the positive physical shape.

The solid physical form
Analyzing an Artwork using the critical method
the Elements you see such as line, shape, form, value, color, space, and texture.
the Principles of Design such as unity, contrast, emphasis, rhythm and movement, pattern and balance. How are these Principles achieved using the elements? How do you think this piece was made? What kind of materials do you think the artist used?
What is it saying? What is the mood of the piece.
How is it successful? What would help the piece be stronger?
Principles of Design
Repetition and Variety
Scale and Proportion
Rhythm and Movement
Watch the videos and find at least 5 things that stand out to you - write them down !!! (You will turn then in after viewing all the videos)

Please make a name tag using the supplies
Fold your paper length wise in half and on the inside please tell me the following:

How did you spend your summer vacation?
If stranded on a desert island, what 3 things would you bring and why?
Do you have a scar and how did you get it?
If you could have any animal to ride what would it be and why? (fictional or non-fictional)
What is your favorite song?
What would you like to learn from this class?

Analysing Art:
Content - looking at the subject
What is it?
What is happening?
What does the work represent?
Does the title change the way we see the work?
What is the theme of the work?

(journey,moment, memory, event, surreal, fantasy, abstract, message, energy)

Form - looking at the formal elements
What colors does the artist use? Why?
What kind of shapes can you find?
What kind of lines and marks does the artist use?
What is the surface texture like?
What kind of patterns can you see?

(light, delicate, layered, strong, rough, dark, peaceful, dripped, textured, scale, vivid, bright)

Process - how the work has been developed and made
What materials and tools have been used?
What is the evidence and clues for how it has been made?

pinched, wheel thrown, coiled, carved, mold casting,
Mood - looking at the communication of moods and feelings
How does the work make you feel?
Why do you feel like this?
Does the color, texture, form or theme of the work affect your mood?

(quiet, contemplative, thoughtful, hopeful, peaceful, elated, joyful, celebratory, reflective, insightful, educational)

Interpretation and Justification - looking at the meaning of the work
After analyzing the context, form, process and mood:

What do you think the artist is saying? Why?
What message is the work/artist trying to communicate? Why?

Wedging - Pinch Pot and Sgraffito
kneading the clay in order to get all of the clay particles aligned and get rid of air bubbles
a form of decoration made by scratching through a surface to reveal a layer of contrasting color or the body of clay beneath an under glaze or colored slip.
Clay shrinks as it dries and if it shrinks too rapidly it can crack. Use the slip to smooth out cracks as you work
Rule of Thumb thickness - always hollow out clay with a loop tool if too thick to avoid breaking in the firing
Leather hard - when pressure is applied to the clay, the form will not easily distort. this is a good time to carve into your piece and make detailed designs
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