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Transcript of Naturalism
Meat Inspection Act & Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
The Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 were the result of The Jungle. And although, the book’s notoriety may have made Sinclair famous, the resulting healthier meat products
The Cleveland Museum of Art
George Bellows, American (1882-1925)
Oil on canvas
36 1/4 x48 1/4 in. (92 x 122.6 cm)
+ a movement that rejected French Impressionism and American painting that glorified the American West
Although they are sometimes called the New York realists, because a critic who did not appreciate their choice of subject matter — alleys, tenements, and slum dwellers — gave the artists involved in this art movement a more colorful name that's more popularly used: the "Ashcan School." Confusingly, another label that is used for them is that of another more clearly defined group — "The Eight."
The Ashcan School included these six members of The Eight:
Arthur B. Davies (1862-1928)
Robert Henri (1865-1929)
George Luks (1867-1933)
William Glackens (1870-1938)
John Sloan (1871-1951)
Everett Shinn (1876-1953). Others who are considered in the Ashcan school: Alfred Maurer (1868-1932), George Wesley Bellows (1882-1925), Edward Hopper (1882-1967), and Guy Pène Du Bois (1884-1958).
Naturalism was a literary movement taking place from 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character. It was depicted as a literary movement that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. Naturalism is the outgrowth of literary realism, a prominent literary movement in mid-19th-century France and elsewhere. Naturalistic writers were influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. They believed that one's heredity and social environment determine one's character. Whereas realism seeks only to describe subjects as they really are, naturalism also attempts to determine "scientifically" the underlying forces (e.g. the environment or heredity) influencing the actions of its subjects. Naturalistic works often include uncouth or sordid subject matter; for example, Émile Zola's works had a frankness about sexuality along with a pervasive pessimism. Naturalistic works exposed the dark harshness of life, including poverty, racism, sex, violence, prejudice, disease, corruption, prostitution, and filth. As a result, naturalistic writers were frequently criticized for being too blunt.
Through this objective study of human beings, naturalistic writers believed that the laws behind the forces that govern human lives might be studied and understood. Naturalistic writers thus used a version of the scientific method to write their novels; they studied human beings governed by their instincts and passions as well as the ways in which the characters' lives were governed by forces of heredity and environment.
"If in a democratic country nothing can be permanently achieved save through the masses of the people, it will be impossible to establish a higher political life than the people themselves crave....the blessings which we associate with a life of refinement and cultivation can be made universal and must be made universal if they are to be permanent...the good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain, is floating in mid-air, until it is secured for all of us and incorporated into our common life."
- Jane Addams, "The Subjective Necessity of Social Settlements," an address to a conference of social workers, 189282
"A philosophy animated, be it unconsciously or consciously, by the strivings of men to achieve democracy will construe liberty as meaning a universe in which there is real uncertainty and contingency... a world which in some respect is incomplete and in the making, and which in these respects may be made this way or that according as men judge, prize, love and labor."
- John Dewey, "Philosophy and Democracy," a talk delivered at the University of California, Berkeley, 191883
When it occurs to a man that nature does not regard him as important, and that she feels she would not maim the universe by disposing of him, he at first wishes to throw bricks at the temple, and he hates deeply the fact that there are no bricks and no temples.
--Stephen Crane, "The Open Boat"
A man said to the universe:
"Sir, I exist!"
"However," replied the universe,
"The fact has not created in me
A sense of obligation." --Stephen Crane (1894, 1899)
"Now, it is very necessary that we should not flinch from seeing what is vile and debasing. There is filth on the floor, and it must be scraped up with the muck rake; and there are times and places where this service is the most needed of all the services that can be performed. But the man who never does anything else, who never thinks or speaks or writes, save of his feats with the muck rake, speedily becomes, not a help but one of the most potent forces for evil.... The effort to make financial or political profit out of the destruction of character can only result in calamity."
- Theodore Roosevelt, "The Man with the Muck Rake" speech, 14 April 190685
Tarbell disliked the muckracker label, and wrote an article, "Muckraker or Historian," in which she justified her efforts for exposing the oil trust. She referred to
"this classification of muckraker, which I did not like. All the radical element, and I numbered many friends among them, were begging me to join their movements. I soon found that most of them wanted attacks. They had little interest in balanced findings. Now I was convinced that in the long run the public they were trying to stir would weary of vituperation, that if you were to secure permanent results the mind must be convinced."
I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach.
Upton Sinclair, on his novel, "The Jungle" (1906)
It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his job depends on not understanding it.
George Wesley Bellows, Cliff Dwellers, 1913,
oil on canvas, 40 1/8 x 42 inches (101.9 x 106.7 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his job depends on not understanding it.
In the 1890s, Hull-House was located in the midst of a densely populated urban neighborhood peopled by Italian, Irish, German, Greek, Bohemian, and Russian and Polish Jewish immigrants. During the 1920s, African Americans and Mexicans began to put down roots in the neighborhood and joined the clubs and activities at Hull-House. Jane Addams and the Hull-House residents provided kindergarten and day care facilities for the children of working mothers; an employment bureau; an art gallery; libraries; English and citizenship classes; and theater, music and art classes. As the complex expanded to include thirteen buildings, Hull-House supported more clubs and activities such as a Labor Museum, the Jane Club for single working girls, meeting places for trade union groups, and a wide array of cultural events.
Among the projects that they helped launch were the Immigrants' Protective League, the Juvenile Protective Association, the first juvenile court in the nation, and a Juvenile Psychopathic Clinic (later called the Institute for Juvenile Research). Through their efforts, the Illinois Legislature enacted protective legislation for women and children in 1893. With the creation of the Federal Children's Bureau in 1912 and the passage of a federal child labor law in 1916, the Hull-House reformers saw their efforts expanded to the national level.
Harold Lloyd in Safety Last
After 1798, Tammany came under the control of Aaron Burr. While Tammany was fighting the political forces of De Witt Clinton, it consolidated its position in the city. Tammany backed Andrew Jackson for president, and after his victories in 1828 and 1832 it became a dominant force, fighting for democratic suffrage and the abolition of imprisonment for debt in New York state.
Although it stood for reforms on behalf of the common people, it was nonetheless increasingly controlled by men of the privileged classes. The hostility of workingmen toward this “aristocratic” control promoted splits within the Democratic party in the city and state, such as the revolt of the Locofocos in the 1830s and the contest between the Barnburners and the Hunkers in the late 1840s. Tammany meanwhile triumphed over the Know-Nothing movement and the local Whig party alike and steadily gained strength by bringing newly arrived immigrants into its fold. The immigrants were helped to obtain jobs, then quickly naturalized and persuaded to vote for their benefactors. Because of the willingness of Tammany to provide them with food, clothing, and fuel in emergencies, and to aid those who ran afoul of the law, these new Americans became devoted to the organization and were willing to overlook the fraudulent election practices, the graft, the corruption, and the other abuses that often characterized Tammany administrations.
Flagrant abuses during the reign of William M. Tweed led to reforms instituted (1872) by Samuel J. Tilden. However, Tammany returned to power under John Kelly, and the boss system (see bossism) became firmly entrenched in New York City. Corruption under Richard Croker provoked new investigations, such as that initiated by Charles Parkhurst, and when Seth Low became (1901) mayor, Tammany was eclipsed for a time.
Charles Murphy succeeded Croker as boss. His reign was interrupted by the brief administration of John P. Mitchel, who, like Gov. William Sulzer, was a Democrat but an opponent of Tammany. Alfred E. Smith, a protégé of Murphy, became strong enough to create a “new” Tammany, in which he was an important figure. Corruption in city politics continued, however, and investigations, including that headed by Samuel Seabury (1930–31), of the city magistrates' courts completely discredited Tammany Hall and ultimately brought about the resignation (1932) of Mayor James J. Walker.
Read more: Tammany: A Political Force — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0861430.html#ixzz1KZZXwsSk
The Wainwright Building (also known as the Wainwright State Office Building) is a 10-story red brick office building at 709 Chestnut Street in downtown St. Louis, Missouri.
Cities grew upward as well as outward. In 1889, the tallest building in the United States was New York's Trinity Church, near Wall Street. The next year, it was overtaken by the 26-story New York World Building. Fueled by an intense demand for office space in downtown areas, the skyscraper transformed the appearance of American cities.Brick could not bear the weight of buildings higher than five or six stories. But beginning in Chicago in 1884, steel frame construction allowed architects to design buildings of unprecedented height.William LeBaron Jenney, a Chicago architect, designed the first skyscraper in 1884. Nine stories high, the Home Life Insurance Building was the first structure whose entire weight, including the exterior walls, was supported on an iron frame. But it would not be for another 14 years, when the Equitable Life Assurance Building was constructed in Manhattan that a skyscraper contained all the characteristics of a modern skyscraper, including central heating, elevators, and pressurized plumbing.
To transport people within the building, skyscraper needed elevators. During the 1870s, some five and six story buildings had steam-powered elevators, which had cables wound around a huge rotating drum; but these were not suitable for taller buildings, since the drum would have to be impractically large. The Eiffel Tower used hydraulic-powered elevators, which required a huge power source. During the 1880s, the electric elevator offered a more practical solution.Tall buildings also needed ventilation systems to heat them in the winter and cool them in the summer. The early ventilation systems, introduced in the 1860s, used steam-powered fans to move air through ducts. After 1890, fans were driven by electricity. Steam heating using radiators was widely used by 1885. Plumbing to circulate water through the building relied on pressure using electric pumps.
King Vidor's The Crowd from 1927
What Happened on Twenty Third Street, New York City 1901
The immigrant poor lived in overcrowded, unsanitary, and unsafe housing. Many lived in tenements, dumbbell-shaped brick apartment buildings, four to six stories in height. In 1900, two-thirds of Manhattan's residents lived in tenements.In one New York tenement, up to 18 people lived in each apartment. Each apartment had a wood-burning stove and a concrete bathtub in the kitchen, which, when covered with planks, served as a dining table. Before 1901, residents used rear-yard outhouses. Afterward, two common toilets were installed on each floor. In the summer, children sometimes slept on the fire escape. Tenants typically paid $10 a month rent.
Antiquities Act (1906)
Teapot Dome Scandal
Albert bierstadt: looking down yosemite valley
MOdern Environmental Movement
uring the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, several events illustrated the magnitude of environmental damage caused by humans. In 1954, the 23 man crew of the Japanese fishing vessel Lucky Dragon 5 was exposed to radioactive fallout from a hydrogen bomb test at Bikini Atoll. The publication of the book Silent Spring (1962) by Rachel Carson drew attention to the impact of chemicals on the natural environment. In 1967, the oil tanker Torrey Canyon went aground off the southwest coast of England, and in 1969 oil spilled from an offshore well in California's Santa Barbara Channel. In 1971, the conclusion of a law suit in Japan drew international attention to the effects of decades of mercury poisoning on the people of Minamata.
At the same time, emerging scientific research drew new attention to existing and hypothetical threats to the environment and humanity. Among them were Paul R. Ehrlich, whose book The Population Bomb (1968) revived concerns about the impact of exponential population growth. Biologist Barry Commoner generated a debate about growth, affluence and "flawed technology." Additionally, an association of scientists and political leaders known as the Club of Rome published their report The Limits to Growth in 1972, and drew attention to the growing pressure on natural resources from human activities.
Meanwhile, technological accomplishments such as nuclear proliferation and photos of the Earth from outer space provided both new insights and new reasons for concern over Earth's seemingly small and unique place in the universe.
In 1972, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm, and for the first time united the representatives of multiple governments in discussion relating to the state of the global environment. This conference led directly to the creation of government environmental agencies and the UN Environment Program. The United States also passed new legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act- the foundations for current environmental standards.
By the mid-1970s anti-nuclear activism had moved beyond local protests and politics to gain a wider appeal and influence. Although it lacked a single co-ordinating organization the anti-nuclear movement's efforts gained a great deal of attention. In the aftermath of the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, many mass demonstrations took place. The largest one was held in New York City in September 1979 and involved two hundred thousand people; speeches were given by Jane Fonda and Ralph Nader.
Since the 1970s, public awareness, environmental sciences, ecology, and technology have advanced to include modern focus points like ozone depletion, global climate change, acid rain, and the potentially harmful genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
Between November 1902 and October 1904. Tarbell wrote a detailed exposé of Rockefeller’s unethical tactics, sympathetically portraying the plight of Pennsylvania’s independent oil workers. Still, she was careful to acknowledge Rockefeller’s brilliance and the flawlessness of the business structure he had created. She did not condemn capitalism itself, but "the open disregard of decent ethical business practices by capitalists." About Standard Oil, she wrote: "They had never played fair, and that ruined their greatness for me."
Taft (Roosevelt's succesor later fired Pinchot for speaking out against his policies and those of Richard Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior. Pinchot launched a series of public attacks to discredit Ballinger and force him from office in what became known as the Pinchot– Ballinger controversy.
This issue became a national controversy when Louis Glavis, an Interior employee, charged that Ballinger had acted improperly by opening Alaskan coal fields to private mining interests. Glavis turned for support to Gifford Pinchot, the Chief Forester and longtime friend of Roosevelt. In the public eye, the matter became a struggle between Pinchot and Ballinger over the future of conservation; Glavis was soon forgotten.
“Conservation is the foresighted utilization, preservation and/or renewal of forests, waters, lands and minerals, for the greatest good of the greatest number for the longest time.”
“The earth and its resources belong of right to its people”
"When one tugs at a single thing in nature, he finds it attached to the rest of the world."
"Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their energy, while cares will drop away from you like the leaves of Autumn."
"The clearest way into the Universe is through a forest wilderness."
In his later life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the Western forests. He petitioned the U.S. Congress for the National Park Bill that was passed in 1899, establishing both Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks. Because of the spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings, he was able to inspire readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to help preserve large nature areas. He is today referred to as the "Father of the National Parks," and the National Park Service produced a short documentary on his life
John French Sloan, McSorley's Bar, 1912,
William Glackens, Italo-American Celebration, Washington Square, 1912
Robert Henri, Snow in New York, 1902
Explaining the Political Malaise
Both parties appealed to small number of moderate swing voters in just five swing states
Laissez faire ideology and legacy of Civil War discouraged political activism
National elections during Gilded Age were close and voter turnout was high
But neither Democrats nor Republicans pursued ambitious agendas
Corruption scandals were common during Gilded Age
Crédit Mobilier scandal implicated Vice President Schuyler Colfax
City politics ruled by corrupt machines like New York's Tammany Hall
"A Stalwart of the Stalwarts"
Government jobs were distributed through corrupt patronage systems
President James Garfield was assassinated by a frustrated job-seeker named Charles Guiteau
Department of Commerce and Labor. In 1903, Roosevelt persuaded Congress to establish a new cabinet-level department to increase the federal government’s purview over the interstate commerce actions of business and to monitor labor relations. Big business interests lobbied heavily to halt this innovation — the first new executive department since the Civil War — but failed. (Commerce and Labor would be separated into independent department in 1913.)
Bureau of Corporations. As an arm of the newly created department, a Bureau of Corporations was established to find violations under the existing antitrust legislation. The Bureau began investigations into the activities of the meatpacking, oil, steel and tobacco industries, among others.
Antitrust Law Suits. Roosevelt instructed his attorney general, Philander C. Knox, to launch a series of lawsuits against what were deemed offensive business combinations. Such giants as J.P. Morgan’s Northern Securities Company, John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust and James B. Duke’s tobacco trust were targets of the government’s attorneys. In all, forty-four suits were brought during Roosevelt’s administration.
TR resurrected the nearly defunct Sherman Antitrust Act by bringing a successful suit to break up a huge railroad conglomerate, the Northern Securities Company. Roosevelt pursued this policy of “trust-busting” by initiating suits against 43 other major corporations during the next seven years.
City of Ambitions (1910)
This a nice urban scene with a great contrast in the hard industrialization represented by the skyscrapers to the soft natural water, shimmering in the foreground.
The Steerage (1907) (see photo above)
This image was considered by Stieglitz himself to be a work of importance as it relied on "related shapes and on the deepest human feeling". It was taken on board the passenger liner Kaider Wilhelm 11 whilst he was on his way to Europe in 1907.
The Photo-Secession Group
He also founded a group known as the Photo-Secession group, which was a group of leading photographers who Stieglitz described as "seceding from the accepted idea of what constitutes a photograph".
He opened several galleries in 1905 and the gallery "291" became a regular meeting place for new avant-garde artists of the time. Via these galleries Alfred Stieglitz began to influence the art scene with new ideas and vision, as well as providing support and encouragement for up and coming artists.
Stieglitz photographic work mainly consisted of images of New York daily life and then later of his wife Georgia O'Keefe. His New York pictures were similar in style to soft focus pictorialism, however he rarely tampered with his negatives or print to achieve this effect.
This effect was often achieved by shooting in difficult lighting conditions and bad weather, which gave similar qualities to his pictures only achieved by other via post manipulation.
Alfred Stieglitz helped to increase the scope for the art of photography and also established it as a legitimate art form in its own right.
Strands work prior to 1917 included candid street photography of beggars and cab drivers that seemed to be fore runners of the realistic images later to be championed by Henri Cartier Bresson.
After 1917 Strands work changed and his photography became more abstract. Highlighting shadows, unusual angles and showing how people relate and interact with the geometry of modern architecture.
His range of subjects throughout his career was diverse in nature and ranged from portraits, documentary, landscape and architecture, including images of machines and industrial sites.
If we are alive to the spirit of our time, it is these moderns who interest us why should not the camera also throw off the shackles of conventional representation and attempt something fresh and untried?
Why should not its subtle rapidity be utilized to study movement? Why not repeated successive exposures of an object in motion on the same plate? Why should not perspective be studied from angles hitherto neglected or unobserved?
Think of the joys of doing something which it would be impossible to classify, or to tell which was the top and which the bottom?"
Alvin Langdon Coburn
J. Pierpont Morgan. Esq.| 1903
Edward STEICHEN (1879-1976)
Spiral Jetty - Robert Smithson
CAPITALISTS <> Robber Barons <> Tycoons <> CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY
John Jacob Astor (real estate, fur) – New York City
Andrew Carnegie (steel) - Pittsburgh and New York
Jay Cooke (finance) – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Charles Crocker (railroads) - California
Daniel Drew (finance) – New York state
James Buchanan Duke (tobacco) – near Durham, North Carolina
James Fisk (finance) – New York state
Henry Morrison Flagler (railroads, oil, the Standard Oil company) – New York City & Palm Beach, Florida
Henry Clay Frick (steel) – Pittsburgh and New York City
John Warne Gates (steel)
Jay Gould (railroads)
Edward Henry Harriman (railroads) – New York state
Milton S. Hershey (Chocolate)
Mark Hopkins (railroads) - California
J. P. Morgan (banking, finance, steel, industrial consolidation) New York City
Henry B. Plant (railroads) - Florida
John D. Rockefeller (oil) Standard Oil
John D. Spreckels (San Diego transportation, water, media) – San Diego, California
Leland Stanford (railroads) – Sacramento, California and San Francisco, California
Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads)
Finally in 1916, President Woodrow Wilson created Sieur de Monts National Monument. This process had taken more than two years, but with faith, great persistence, and the help of influential friends, Dorr made it happen. While the Trustees would have preferred national park status, Dorr chose to have Wilson sign off on the national monument rather than waiting for Congress to act on the national park. With the establishment of the National Park Service in 1916, many were in line for designation as a national park. It was not until 1919 that Lafayette National Park came into being.
As the first superintendent of Trustees lands, George Dorr built the spring house at Sieur de Monts in 1909 and carved “The Sweet Waters of Acadia” on a nearby rock. Today, this location has come to symbolize the enthusiasm and contributions of Dorr and other early-20th-century citizens in the creation and preservation of these lands. Additional tracts were added; Dorr worked closely with the Civilian Conservation Corps as they worked in the park and with John D. Rockefeller Jr. when he built the carriage road system. Dorr was ever vigilant that anything done in the park would be of the highest quality and not mar the incredible beauty and uniqueness of the area.
Saved to future generations as it has been to us, in the wild primeval beauty of the nature it exhibits, of ancient rocks and still more ancient sea, with infinite detail of life and landscape interest between, the spirit and mind of man will surely find in it in the years and centuries to come an inspiration and a means of growth as essential to them ever and anon as are fresh air and sunshine to the body.
Beginning in 1913, when Mather wrote to the Secretary of the Interior, Franklin K. Lane, and deplored the state of the parks, he began building support for better management of the system by the federal government. In 1915, Lane appointed Mather as his assistant to work on the parks issues. At the time, the government owned 14 parks and 18 national monuments, many administered by Army officers or political appointees, as battlefields were among the first parks designated. He used his personal funds to Robert Sterling Yard to work with him on publicizing the great resources of the parks. Mather was effective in building support for the parks with a variety of politicians and wealthy corporate leaders; he also led efforts to publicize the National Parks and develop wider appreciation for their scenic places among the population. He appointed Yard as head of the National Park Education Committee to coordinate their various communication efforts.
In 1916 the National Park Service was authorized by Congress and approved by the president. Mather helped establish the new federal agency to protect and manage the national parks, together with a new appreciation for the parks. In addition, he professionalized management of the parks, creating a cadre of career civil service people who were specialists in a variety of disciplines, to operate and manage the parks while preserving their natural character.
In 1917 Mather was appointed Assistant Secretary of Interior and head of the National Park Service. Due to his success in working with leaders of various groups and the Congress, he served until 1929. He believed that magnificent scenery should be the first criterion in establishing a national park, and made efforts to have new parks established before the lands were developed for other purposes.
Robert Sterling Yard
Yard's most successful publicity initiative during this time was the National Parks Portfolio (1916), a collection of nine pamphlets that—through photographs interspersed with text lauding the scenic grandeur of the nation's major parks—connected the parks with a sense of national identity to make visitation an imperative of American citizenship. Yard and Mather distributed this publication to a carefully selected list of prominent Americans, including every member of Congress. That same year, Yard wrote and published Glimpses of Our National Parks, which was followed in 1917 by a similar volume titled The Top of the Continent. The latter volume, which was subtitled A Cheerful Journey through Our National Parks and geared toward a younger audience, became a bestseller
Pioneer and Immigrant
Natural to care for the sick and feed the hungry
Uncovering "Ugly human traits" like battery, oppression and neglect
1172 Norton C > Provide a center for a higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises, and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago
Teaching the Old Ways
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
Banking Act of 1935
Due to his disfugured face, JP Morgan regretfully declines this picture
Employer's Liability Act
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
9/24/06 Devils Tower, WY*
12/8/06 El Morro, NM*
12/8/06 Montezuma Castle, AZ*
12/8/06 Petrified Forest, AZ
3/11/07 Chaco Canyon (now Chaco Culture), NM
5/6/07 Cinder Cone (now part of Lassen Volcanic NP), CA
5/6/07 Lassen Peak (now Lassen Volcanic NP), CA
11/16/07 Gila Cliff Dwellings, NM*
12/19/07 Tonto, AZ*
1/9/08 Muir Woods, CA*
1/11/08 Grand Canyon, AZ
1/16/08 Pinnacles, CA*
2/7/08 Jewel Cave, SD*
4/16/08 Natural Bridges, UT*
5/11/08 Lewis and Clark Cavern, MT
9/15/08 Tumacacori, AZ
12/7/08 Wheeler, CO
3/2/09 Mount Olympus (now Olympic NP), WA
William Howard Taft
3/20/09 Navajo, AZ*
7/12/09 Oregon Caves, OR*
7/31/09 Mukuntuweap, UT
9/21/09 Shoshone Cavern, WY
11/1/09 Gran Quivira (now Salinas Pueblo Missions), NM*
3/23/10 Sitka, AK
5/30/10 Rainbow Bridge, UT*
6/23/10 Big Hole Battlefield, MT
5/24/11 Colorado, CO*
7/6/11 Devils Postpile, CA*
10/14/13 Cabrillo, CA*
1/31/14 Papago Saguaro, AZ
10/4/15 Dinosaur, UT-CO*
11/30/15 Walnut Canyon, AZ*
2/11/16 Bandelier, NM*
7/8/16 Sieur de Monts (now Acadia NP), ME
8/9/16 Capulin Mountain (now Capulin Volcano), NM*
10/25/16 Old Kasaan, AK
6/29/17 Verendrye, ND
3/18/18 Zion, UT (incorporated Mukuntuweap NM)
8/3/18 Casa Grande (now Casa Grande Ruins), AZ*
9/24/18 Katmai, AK
12/12/19 Scotts Bluff, NE*
12/12/19 Yucca House, CO*
Warren G. Harding
1/24/22 Lehman Caves, NV
10/14/22 Timpanogos Cave, UT*
10/21/22 Fossil Cycad, SD
1/24/23 Aztec Ruin (now Aztec Ruins), NM*
3/2/23 Hovenweep, UT-CO*
3/2/23 Mound City Group, OH
5/31/23 Pipe Spring, AZ*
6/8/23 Bryce Canyon, UT
10/25/23 Carlsbad Cave (now Carlsbad Caverns NP), NM
4/18/24 Chiricahua, AZ*
5/2/24 Craters of the Moon, ID*
10/15/24 Castle Pinckney, SC
10/15/24 Fort Marion (now Castillo de San Marcos), FL*
10/15/24 Fort Matanzas, FL*
10/15/24 Fort Pulaski, GA*
10/15/24 Statue of Liberty, NY*
12/9/24 Wupatki, AZ*
2/26/25 Glacier Bay, AK
2/26/25 Meriwether Lewis, TN
9/5/25 Father Millet Cross, NY
11/21/25 Lava Beds, CA*
4/12/29 Arches, UT
5/11/29 Holy Cross, CO
5/26/30 Sunset Crater (now Sunset Crater Volcano), AZ*
7/3/30 Colonial, VA +
2/14/31 Canyon de Chelly, AZ*+
3/30/31 George Washington Birthplace, VA*+
3/17/32 Great Sand Dunes, CO*
12/22/32 Grand Canyon, AZ
1/18/33 White Sands, NM*
2/11/33 Death Valley, CA-NV
3/1/33 Saguaro, AZ
3/3/33 Black Canyon of the Gunnison, CO
Franklin D. Roosevelt
4/26/33 Channel Islands, CA
8/22/33 Cedar Breaks, UT*
6/14/34 Ocmulgee, GA*+
1/4/35 Fort Jefferson (now Dry Tortugas NP), FL
8/13/35 Appomattox, VA+
8/21/35 Fort Stanwix, NY*+
8/27/35 Ackia Battleground (now part of Natchez Trace Parkway), MS+
8/29/35 Andrew Johnson, TN+
3/19/36 Homestead, NE*+
5/26/36 Fort Frederica, GA+
6/2/36 Perry's Victory (now Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial), OH+
6/29/36 Whitman, WA+
8/10/36 Joshua Tree, CA
1/22/37 Zion, UT
4/13/37 Organ Pipe Cactus, AZ*
8/2/37 Capitol Reef, UT
8/25/37 Pipestone, MN+
7/16/38 Fort Laramie, WY
1/24/39 Badlands, SD+
5/17/39 Santa Rosa Island, FL
7/24/39 Tuzigoot, AZ*
8/11/39 Fort McHenry(now Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine), MD+
3/15/43 Jackson Hole, WY
7/14/43 George Washington Carver, MO*+
6/30/44 Harpers Ferry, WV+
Harry S. Truman
3/22/46 Custer Battlefield (now Little Bighorn Battlefield), MT
8/12/46 Castle Clinton, NY*+
6/19/48 Fort Vancouver, WA+
7/12/48 Fort Sumter, SC*+
6/8/49 Saint Croix, ME*+
10/25/49 Effigy Mounds, IA*
Dwight D. Eisenhower
6/28/54 Fort Union, NM*+
4/2/56 Booker T. Washington, VA*+
7/14/56 Edison Laboratory (now Edison NHS), NJ
1/18/61 Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, MD-WV
John F. Kennedy
5/11/61 Russell Cave, AL*
12/28/61 Buck Island Reef, VI*
Lyndon B. Johnson
6/5/65 Agate Fossil Beds, NE*+
6/28/65 Pecos, NM+
8/31/65 Alibates Flint Quarries, ID*+
10/18/68 Biscayne, FL+
1/20/69 Marble Canyon, AZ
Richard M. Nixon
8/20/69 Florissant Fossil Beds, CO*+
10/21/72 Hohokam Pima, AZ*+
10/23/72 Fossil Butte, WY*+
10/26/74 John Day Fossil Butte, WY*+
10/18/76 Congaree Swamp, SC*+
12/1/78 Admiralty Island, AK*
12/1/78 Aniakchak, AK*
12/1/78 Becharof, AK
12/1/78 Bering Land Bridge, AK
12/1/78 Cape Krusenstern, AK*
12/1/78 Denali, AK
12/1/78 Gates of the Arctic, AK
12/1/78 Kenai Fjords, AK
12/1/78 Kobuk Valley, AK
12/1/78 Lake Clark, AK
12/1/78 Misty Fjords, AK*
12/1/78 Noatak, AK
12/1/78 Wrangell-St. Elias, AK
12/1/78 Yukon-Charley, AK
12/1/78 Yukon Flats, AK
12/31/87 El Malpais, NM*+
10/31/88 Poverty Point, LA*+
11/18/88 Hagerman Fossil Beds, ID*+
6/27/90 Petroglyph, NM*+
William J. Clinton
9/18/96 Grand Staircase-Escalante, UT*
1/11/00 Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, AZ*
1/11/00 Agua Fria National Monument, AZ*
1/11/00 California Coastal National Monument, CA*
4/15/00 Giant Sequoia*
6/09/00 Hanford Reach, WA*
6/09/00 Ironwood Forest, AZ*
6/09/00 Canyons of the Ancients, CO*
6/09/00 Cascade-Siskiyou, OR*
7/07/00 President Lincoln and Soldiers' Home, DC*
10/24/00 Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains, CA+
11/9/00 Vermillion Cliffs, AZ*
1/17/01 Carrizo Plain, CA*
1/17/01 Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks, NM*
1/17/01 Pompeys Piller, MT*
1/17/01 Sonoran Desert National Monument, AZ*
1/17/01 Upper Missouri River Breaks, MT*
1/17/01 Virgin Islands Coral Reef, VI*
1/20/01 Governors Island-Castle Williams and Fort Jay, NY*
The Antiquities Act authorizes the president to declare historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest located on federal lands as national monuments. Under the act, permits may be "granted by the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and Army to institutions which they may deem properly qualified to conduct such examination, excavation, or gathering, subject to such rules and regulations as they may prescribe.
National Conservation Commission (1908)
The Newlands Act (1902)
Allowed for the sale of public lands with the provision that proceeds be used for irrigation projects.
NCC was created from a conference at the White House on conservation. Pinchot was appointed as chair and created 36 state boards to cooperate with the national body
Sets aside 148 million acres for Timber Reserve inNational Parks