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Dunckel - Ch. 22.2 Minerals

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Scott Dunckel

on 10 November 2015

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Transcript of Dunckel - Ch. 22.2 Minerals

I. Minerals and Rocks
Rock
- a solid combination of minerals or mineral materials.
Mineral
-
(building blocks of rocks)
a naturally occuring
(not man made)
, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic
(Unique)
chemical composition.
Minerals are
inorganic
, meaning that living things did not create them.
Most rocks are made of three basic minerals: Mica, Quartz, and Feldspar.
Crystal
- a solid in which the atoms are arranged in a regular pattern.
Chemical Composition
- Unique size and shape of crystals
(some microscopic, others as big as telephone poles)
Dunckel - Ch. 22.2 Minerals
II. Properties of Minerals
Crystals are identified by the following properties: [ Crystal structure, Color, Streak, Luster, Density, Hardness, Breakage(fracture or cleavage).
a)
Crystal Structure--
Atoms arranged in regular patterns. Some examples are:
prisms
cubes
sheets
needles
threads
b) Color--

Some minerals have a characteristic color:
Pyrite = gold
Sulfur = yellow
Garnet = red
C) Streak--
The color of a mineral's

powder after you scrape it on a
ceramic tile.
D) Luster--
The way the surface of a mineral reflects light.
Examples:
Metalic and Non-metalic: Most minerals either shine like metal, or are dull.
Other lusters include:
Earthy = rough
vitrious = glassy
silky = shines but not glassy
E) Density--
The higher the atomic mass of a mineral, the more dense it is.
(how many atoms packed into its space)
F) Hardness--
Resistance of a mineral to being scratched.
Measured on the Mohs Hardness scale from 1 (softest = Talcum) to 10 (hardest = diamonds)
G) Breakage
Fracture = Describes how a crystal breaks randomly
Cleavage = a type of break along predictable lines. Leaves flat or disk shaped breaks.
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