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World Wars 1 and 2 project
Transcript of World Wars 1 and 2 project
The development and use of poison gas was necessitated by the requirement of wartime armies to find new ways of overcoming the stalemate of unexpected trench warfare. “Tear gas” was invented by the French, and then used by them against the Germans. Although the French were the first to use it, Germany studied it and was the first to use poison gas on a large scale.
This weapon brought a new way to fight and a new way to win the war. Weapon, WW1 •Flamethrowers
Brought terror to both the French and the British soldiers when used by the German army in the early phases of WW1. The basic idea of a flame thrower is to spread fire by launching burning fuel, hence the name. These took form of lengthy tubes filled with burning solids, such as coal or sulfur.
This, like the poison gas, brought new ways to win the wars. Weapons, WW1 Weapons WW2 Weapons: WW2 •The Sten Gun
After the disastrous defeat and withdrawal from Dunkirk in 1940, the British army was facing a severe shortage of military equipment. Forced to leave most of their equipment on the beaches as they fled, the British armed forces took the opportunity to upgrade their standard issue weapons. They tried to use Thompson Submachine guns, but demand in the U.S. limited the supply. The answer was to come up with a British submachine gun. That was the Sten gun •Hotchkiss Model 1909
Brought about by the French, the army needed lighter fully automatic weapons. At this time, field machine guns were primarily heavy implements requiring the use of multiple crew and heavy duty wheeled stands to manage their placement and function.
This gun was a popular weapon in WW1 •The Karabiner 98K: The most commonly used gun in WW2.
They had dominated armed conflict since the end of the 19th century, and were still used by some armies after the war, but never again would a major nation’s army enter a battle armed with bolt action rifles as standard issue.. Of all the bolt action rifles that saw service during the war, the Karabiner 98k is considered to be the best. Even after the introduction of semi-automatic and automatic weapons, the Germans stuck with the karabiner 98k, partly because of tactical reasons (they based their squad tactics on light machine guns rather than riflemen) and partly because as German loses mounted, they couldn’t produce anything else. Important Leaders: Woodrow Wilson (President of the U.S) (World War One) Woodrow Wilson was the president of the united states during WW1. As a reform Democrat, he was elected as the governor of New Jersey in 1910 and as president in 1912. His first term as president resulted in major legislation including the Underwood-Simmons tariff and the creation of the Federal Trade Commission and the Federal Reserve System. Wilson was a popular president, and the American people elected him to a second term, a term that centered on World War I and his efforts afterward to shape the post-war world through the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1919, during a nation-wide trip undertaken to sell the treaty to the American people, Wilson suffered a dehabilitating stroke. Months of rest led to partial recovery, but Wilson was never the same. Ultimately, with the president in no shape to negotiate a compromise, the isolationist-minded U.S. Senate twice refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. Woodrow Wilson finished out his second term with his wife serving as what amounted to a "fill-in" president. He died in 1924 Important Leaders: •Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen (leader of Germany) (World War One) Wilhelm II or William II (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht; English: Frederick William Victor Albert) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe. Crowned in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led to World War I. Bombastic and impetuous, he sometimes made tactless pronouncements on sensitive topics without consulting his ministers, culminating in a disastrous Daily Telegraph interview that cost him most of his power in 1908. His generals dictated policy during World War I with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands. World War One Leaders: •John J Pershing (Highest General U.S) (World War One) Pershing, John Joseph (1860–1948), a United States army officer. He commanded the American Expeditionary Forces during the entire period of United States participation in World War I, 1917–18. In 1919 Congress created for Pershing the rank of General of the Armies of the United States, which he held for the rest of his life. Until 1976, when Congress granted the same rank to George Washington, Pershing was the highest-ranking officer in American history. Important Leaders: Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Enemy) (World War One) Two bullets fired on a Sarajevo street on a sunny June morning in 1914 set in motion a series of events that shaped the world we live in today. World War One, World War Two, the Cold War and its conclusion all trace their origins to the gunshots that interrupted that summer day. When Archduke was killed it set off a chain of events that later led to the wars listed above. This killing is actually a strategy that was later used in many other wars, battles, gang fights, and littlest of all rivalries. Some people thought that if you killed an important person, the country would weaken, and it would be easier for the enemy to conquer. Important Leaders: Adolf Hitler (World War Two) Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He initiated World War II and oversaw fascist policies that resulted in millions of deaths. He used strategies such as concentration camps, which he sent Jewish people to so they could die, or work for the rest of their lives. He thought he would become ruler of the world, but the world came back and slapped him in the face. Hitler committed suicide with wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker. Important Leaders: FDR Born on January 30, 1882, in Hyde Park, New York, Franklin D. Roosevelt was stricken with polio in 1921. He became the 32ND U.S. president in 1933, and was the only president to be elected four times. Roosevelt led the United States through the Great Depression and World War II, and greatly expanded the powers of the federal government through a series of programs and reforms known as the New Deal. Roosevelt died in Georgia in 1945. He was a favored president, even in his wheelchair. When the attack on Pearl Harbor came through, he was the one who declared war on the Japanese. Important Leaders: Harry S Truman: 33rd President of the United States. During his few weeks as Vice President, Harry S. Truman scarcely saw President Roosevelt, and received no briefing on the development of the atomic bomb or the unfolding difficulties with Soviet Russia. Suddenly these and a host of other wartime problems became Truman's to solve when, on April 12, 1945, he became President. He told reporters, "I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me."
As President, Truman made some of the most crucial decisions in history. Soon after V-E Day, the war against Japan had reached its final stage. An urgent plea to Japan to surrender was rejected. Truman, after consultations with his advisers, ordered atomic bombs dropped on cities devoted to war work. Two were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japanese surrender quickly followed. Important Leaders: Joseph Gobbles He was a writer, and when he failed to find a publisher for his work he developed the theory that this was because the publishing companies were owned by Jews. He was also rejected as a reporter by the newspaper Berliner Tageblatt. Goebbels joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) in 1926. Goebbels described one of their first meetings with Adolf Hitler in his diary: "Shakes my hand. Like an old friend. And those big blue eyes. Like stars. He is glad to see me. I am in heaven. That man has everything to be king."
Hitler admired Goebbels' abilities as a writer and speaker. They shared an interest in propaganda and together they planned how the NSDAP would win the support of the German people. He edited Der Angriff (The Attack) and used the daily newspaper to promote the idea of German nationalism. Strategy: World War One.
Mustard Gas Strategy: World War One
Snipers Soldiers in front-line trenches suffered from enemy snipers. These men were usually specially trained marksmen that had rifles with telescopic sights. German snipers did not normally work from their own trenches. The main strategy was to creep out at dawn into no-man's land and remain there all day. Wearing camouflaged clothing and using the cover of a fake tree, they waited for a British soldier to pop his head above the parapet. A common trick was to send up a kite with English writing on it. Anyone who raised his head to read it was shot Strategy: World War Two
Island Hopping The strategy was called "island hopping". this went they didn't try to capture every island in the pacific but skip there way to bombing range of Tokyo. by surpassing these islands they saved time, supplies, troups, etc. and effectively cut off islands of Japanese troups rendering them useless. Strategy: World War Two
Starvation Blockade, Bombing The Japanese helped out by overtending themselves in the Midway campaign which effectively took the Japanese navy out of the strategic war (June 1943).
Ultimately the USA leapfrogged all the way to the Philippines and Okinawa. It was then that the USA began its own indiscriminate massacre of civilians via a bombing campaign. There was a nod towards attacking militarily important targets but mainly the attacks were meant to kill as many Japanese civilians as possible in the hope that the government would collapse. This strategy was a failure since the Japanese never seriously considered surrender due to bombing alone. It was the combination of bombing, a starvation blockade, and a threat of Soviet invasion that finally caused the Japanese to quit in 1945.
It is important to note that the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki had the greatest effect on the Japanese decision to surrender. Strategy: World War Two
The Women Mustard Gas (Yperite) was first used by the German Army in September 1917. It was one of the most lethal of all the poisonous chemicals used during the war. It was almost odourless and took twelve hours to take effect. Yperite was so powerful that only small amounts had to be added to high explosive shells to be effective. Once in the soil, mustard gas remained active for several weeks. Thanks To These Websites!!! http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/detail.asp?smallarms_id=357
http://www.history.com/topics/american-women-in-world-war-ii During World War II, some 350,000 women served in the U.S. Armed Forces, both at home and abroad. They included the Women's Airforce Service Pilots, who on March 10, 2010, were awarded the prestigious Congressional Gold Medal. Meanwhile, widespread male enlistment left gaping holes in the industrial labor force. Between 1940 and 1945, the female percentage of the U.S. workforce increased from 27 percent to nearly 37 percent, and by 1945 nearly one out of every four married women worked outside the home.
Some say women significantly helped America win the war.