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Transcript of Land:
Land: Power, Borders, & the People
Power, Borders, & the People
"This land was Mexican once
was Indian always
And will be again."
- Gloria Anzaldua
Many tribes and established empires occupy the areas colonized by Spain
Oldest Native American evidence in present day Texas 35000 B.C.
Disease & patriarchy not superiority
Sought the mineral wealth of the land
Malinche-- "La Chingada"
Spain establishes colonial government
Spread of catholicism
Colonial New Spain
Racial caste system
Miscegenation, geographical specificity, histories of resistance
Mestizaje and pockets of nomadic native peoples
Economic changes, chaos in Spain
Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Capt. Ignacio Allende
Appeal to mestizo identity
Mestizo parish priest José Morelos, established a Congress which created a declaration of rights and independence from Spain under King Ferdinand VII and a Constitution included abolition of slavery and equality of classes
Mexico: a Republic
United Mexican States established on October 4, 1824
Presidency changes 75 times in 55 years
Struggle over Texan Independence
Conflicts between white U.S. immigrants and Mexican Texans
Whites ignored anti-slavery laws and refused to become Mexican citizens
Republic of Texas
Boundary disputes trigger the Mexican-American war
Chinese Exclusion Act
Mineral Resources Discovered in Mexican American Lands
Border Industrial Program
Maquiladoras on the rise...
Anglo residents of the U.S. come to get valuable minerals from Mexican (now Mexican American) territories
Agitation over rights to land and minerals
Southern AZ and southwestern NM are purchased by the U.S.
U.S. wanted to create a southern railroad and settle border conflicts
Mexican government is in political and financial turmoil
France, Britain, and Spain attempt to force Benito Juarez's government to pay debts
France tries to establish a new empire
May 5th mestizo and zapotec soldiers defeat the French army in the battle of Puebla
in 1867 Juarez regains control of Mexico
Because of the Chinese exclusion Act, the U.S. begins to look at Mexicans as a cheap labor source that can easily obtain immigration status
More mineral resources are being found in Mexican American territories
Anglos are displacing Mexicans and Mexican Americans from their lands
U.S. starts to view the Mexican border as a threat in WWI
Alleged German and Mexican alliance
During 1924 89,000 Mexicans immigrate to the United States because there are no quotas for Mexican immigrants at the time
The U.S. begins Bracero programs where Mexican nationals can temporarily work as agricultural workers in the U.S.
These workers are government sponsored
INS deports 3.8 million people of Mexican heritage
Response to the Bracero Programs
Pressure from the Mexican government
Huge civil rights abuses
Replacement for the Bracero Program
Under the provisions of the U.S.-Mexican Twin Plan Agreement, raw materials could be temporarily imported into Mexico duty free under the promise of future exportation
Designed by the Mexican Government
As the Mexican economy goes downhill and the peso is devalued, U.S. companies expand factories to utilize the cheap labor source and forge agreements with border towns and cities
Mexico is still unstable after Mexican Independence, but unanimously agrees that Texas is part of Mexico
U.S. "Manifest Destiny" and westward expansion
Indian raids in Texas area
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Ends Mexican-American War
U.S. gains undisputed control of Texas and Mexican Border drawn at the Rio Grande
Mexico forced to cede present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona and Colorado, and parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming.
The Revolution began around 1910 to overthrow the current ruler and dictator Porfirio Díaz Mori who had been focussing on alliances U.S. and other foreign interests, not human rights and land rights for Mexican citizens
Francisco Madero removed Díaz from power, but failed to implement the land reforms he had promised.
General Victoriano Huerta, executed Madero within a week of coming to power. Huerta becomes a dictator working with the U.S. and is overthrown by Venustianio Carranza in 1914.
Mexican Constitution established
Outbreaks of post-revolutionary warfare through the 1920s
More than 95% of Mexico's land was owned by less than 5% of the population
Workers on haciendas were treated like slaves
Land rights were being taken away from rural peasants
Communal land sharing was broken up for foreign interest
Peasants wanted their rights to the land
Farmers wanted to continue their agrarian lifestyles
U.S. President Taft—met and signed the "Embassy Pact," agreed to move against Madero and install Huerta as president
"Tierra y Libertad" (Land and Liberty), Plan de Ayala for land reform
Political and economic emancipation of the peasants in southern Mexico
"It's better to die on your feet than to live on your knees."
1914, Ypiranga incident—United States intelligence agents discover German ship Ypiranga carrying illegal arms to Huerta, President Wilson ordered troops to the port of Veracruz to stop the ship from docking.
In retaliation for Pancho Villa's raid on Columbus, New Mexico, and the death of 16 United States citizens, President Wilson sent forces commanded by Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa.
The Principles of the Revolution