Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Ocean Acidification

No description
by

Kate Jerman

on 1 October 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Ocean Acidification

Objective:
Explain the origins & impact of ocean acidification in the Caribbean Basin and Gulf of Mexico
Suggest Strategies for US & Caribbean Community (CARICOM) to reduce negative effects on citizens, ecosystems & economy
Ocean Acidification:
Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem

Impact on Humans
Loss of reefs = loss of habitat for fish, shrimp, and lobster (major sources of nutrition and income)
Global economic value of reefs is approximately $30 billion/year
Weaker reefs are vulnerable to bleaching
Loss of reefs also creates a loss of barriers to storms and tides, this creates more beach erosion.
Impacts on Ecosystems:
Loss of habitat & food supply for wildlife due to deteriorating reefs
loss of habitats protected by reefs (sea grass, mangroves)
Loss of plankton = collapse of ocean food chain, this impact is worse for large predators such as sharks and whales whose populations are already weakened by over-fishing and over- hunting
Policy Recommendation
Luke Tochtenhagen
Kate Jerman
NOAA

Background
:
Caused by the absorption of CO2 into the ocean, which lowers the pH level
This increased acidity prevents corals & plankton from absorbing calcium. Without absorption of calcium, they can't form shells and skeletons.
This makes them vulnerable to predators & disease

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P. J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R. S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., & Hatziolos, M. E. (2007). Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification.
Andiman, A., Kim, M., & Mink, L. (n.d.). Ocean acidification: Economic costs. Retrieved from http://theotherco2problem.wordpress.com/what-are-the-economic-costs/

Image Source:http://www.sciencemag.org/content/318/5857/1737/F1.large.jpg
Dybas, C. L. (2006). On a collision course: ocean plankton and climate change. BioScience, 56(8), 642-646.
Carbon Dioxide emissions must be drastically reduced to curb the effect of ocean acidification
A command-and-control regulation is recommended for reaching this goal
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013, September 09). Greenhouse gas emissions overview. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases.html.
Emissions in the U.S., by Source
Environmental Protection Agency (2013, September 09). Carbon dioxide emissions, by source. Retrieved from website: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/co2.html

Andiman, A., Kim, M., & Mink, L. (n.d.). Ocean acidification: Economic costs.
Donner, S. D., Knutson, T. R., & Oppenheimer, M. (2007). Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(13), 5483-5488.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P. J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R. S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., ... & Hatziolos, M. E. (2007). Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. science, 318(5857), 1737-1742.


Image Source: http://www.scienceprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Reefs_1138.gif
How do we Achieve Success?
The recommendation focuses on:
1) rule revision to The Clean Air Act in reference to the Climate Change Action Plan ;
2) revisions to the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act.

Rule Revisions to Clean Air Act, referring to Climate Action Plan
1. Clean Air Act Amendment: revise carbon emission standards as an initiative of the Climate Action Plan:
• Targeted, inflexible, regulations on emissions standards for mobile and stationary sources, as opposed to flexibility in compliance mechanism.
• Higher, technology standards, as opposed to performance-based standards.
• Strengthen other emission levels to reduce inputs of NO, SO2, and ammonium that also tangentially contribute to lower pH balances in the ocean.

Obama Administration. (2013, June 25). President Obama's climate change action plan.
Cole, D. H. (2011). When is command-and-control efficient? Evidence from the field. Law, Economics, & Cycling
Sterner, T. (2011). Policy instruments for environmental and natural resource management. (pp. 71-81). Washington, D.C.: RFF Press.
Ocean Acidification Workshop. Convened by the Nature Conservancy, (2008). The honolulu declaration on ocean acidification and reef management.
Ocean Acidification , Monitoring and Research Act of 2009
• regulated strategies that can be applied to coastal areas to promote conservation of coastal ecosystems;
• regulation strategies for land-based pollution sources that directly contribute to coastal pH nutrient imbalances, such as agricultural run-off;
• mandated inclusion of climate change and ocean acidification in marine protected area management plans and implementation through collaborating agencies.
• Regulate safe-catch limits, control bycatch, and protect pristine and important habitats .

Ocean Acidification Workshop. Convened by the Nature Conservancy, (2008). The Honolulu declaration on ocean acidification and reef management. Retrieved from The international union for conservation of nature and natural resources website: http://coralreef.noaa.gov/aboutcrcp/strategy/reprioritization/wgroups/resources/climate/resources/oa_honolulu.pdf
Strengths :
Strengths:
regulation of emissions, technology standards, pollutant run-off, are proven to be successful in reduction of carbon dioxide emission levels domestically.
these regulations also help to implement best technology and science.
additionally, fishing limits and regulations will increase ecosystem capacity and ocean resiliency, to heal and adapt to current pH levels.

Cole, D. H. (2011). When is command-and-control efficient? Evidence from the field. Law, Economics, & Cycling,
Bayer, T. (Director), Hinerfeld, D. (Director), & , (2009). Acid test: A documentary by the natural resources defense council [Web].


Limitations
Limitations:
controlling individual emissions rates do not always imply lower level of emissions.
Economic feasibility of regulating stationary sources may be contested because the technology of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has not been tested large-scale.
Ocean acidification is a wicked problem of global proportions, and reductions in emissions, regulations for fishing, and establishment of Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) must be done on an international scale, not just a regional basis.
Sterner, T. (2011). Policy instruments for environmental and natural resource management. (pp. 71-81). Washington, D.C.: RFF Press.
Romm, J. (2011, November 06). Large-scale carbon capture and storage: Feasibility, permanence and safety issues remain unresolved. Climate Progress,
Questions?
Full transcript