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Copy of The Republic of Texas
Transcript of Copy of The Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas
Method used: Glogster
Website Used: Popplet
Successes, Problems, and Organization of the Republic of Texas
Recognition By Other Nations
France, Belgium, and the Netherlands were the only three European nations to recognize Texas as a sovereign nation.
United States: 1831
France: September 25, 1839
Great Britain and Mexico never recognized independence.
Relationship With The United States
Started in 1823 by Moses Morrison under the authority of Stephen F. Austin (under Mexican Law) to deal with Indian raids.
Companies volunteered and disbanded as needed.
"Ride like a Mexican, trail like an Indian, shoot like a Tennesseean, and fight like the devil."
Events Leading To The Annexation Of Texas to the United States (Issues with Mexico)
1844-James polk is elected President of the United States and advocates the annexation of Texas
The United States was feared England's connection with Texas and the idea of the British having such a strong influence so close to home.
A Congressional resolution to annex Texas was signed in the United States and sent to Texas. It was very generous.
On July 16, 1845, four months after receiving it, Texas Congress accepts U.S. offer of annexation.
Relations with Indians
Under Houston, in both his terms, there was peace and trade with the Indians.
Lamar believed that“The white man and the red man cannot dwell in harmony together. Nature forbids it.”
What was his solution? “It is to push a rigorous war against them to their hiding places without mitigation or compassion.”
Mexican-American War (issues, events, outcome, MAP)
August 1846- Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returns from exile to lead Mexico.
Santa Anna returns to Mexico to deal with a revolt, while the U.S. recruits more Americans to fight.
10/1847-Santa Anna resigns from presidency and is sentenced to exile in Jamaica.
2/2/1848-Negotiators sign Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
3/10/1848- Treaty was ratified by U.S. Senate
5/25/1848-Treaty was ratified by Mexican Senate
David Thomas is the “father of the Texas Constitution”
On 17 March 1836, the constitution was adopted.
Similarities to United States:
Three branches, checks and balances, slavery, citizenship (not for blacks or Indians – prohibited foreign slave trade), male suffrage, method of amendment
Important Historical Documents
Constant war with Mexico and the Indian tribes was very expensive.
The Republic was in debt from the moment it declared independence and remained in debt.
President Lamar issued the Texas Dollar or “redbacks” as currency – within 3 years they had no value.
Sam Houston was the first elected President of Texas
John O. Meusebach, Buffalo Hump (head chief) and Santa Anna agreed to a treaty where unarmed settlers were allowed in, Indians were allowed to interact with settlers, and the settlers paid the Indians $1,000 to survey the land for them.
This treaty alone opened up more than 3 million acres of land.
Relations between Texas and the US were strong. Texas had become unstable and unfit to fully defend or sustain itself, prompting the US to consider annexation. Upon annexation, Mexico declared war on the US.
Adler, D. A., Adler, M. S., & Collins, M. (2012). A picture book of Sam Houston. New York: Holiday House.
Avalon Project - The Treaty of Annexation - Texas; April 12, 1844. (n.d.). Avalon Project - The Treaty of Annexation - Texas; April 12, 1844. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/texan05.asp
Battles of the War. (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/war/entrance_to_city_of_mexico.html Bird's Fort Treaty Ratification Proclamation, 1843. (n.d.). - Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/treasures/indians/birds-01.html
Constitution of the Republic of Texas 1836. (n.d.). Constitution of the Republic of Texas 1836. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/texascon.htm
HOUSTON, SAMUEL. (n.d.). KRENECK, THOMAS H.. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fho73
Historical Events by Year. (n.d.). Today in History, Birthdays & History Articles. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.historyorb.com/events-by-year.php
Mexican War: Chronology of Events and Battles. (n.d.). Mexican War: Chronology of Events and Battles. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/america/unitedstates/1783/1846/chronology.htm
Republic of Texas. (n.d.). Wiki Media. Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Wpdms_republic_of_texas-2008-19-11.svg/300px-Wpdms_republic_of_texas-2008-19-11.svg.png
Republic of Texas Fold-Up. (n.d.). Teachers Pay Teachers. Retrieved October 30, 2013, from http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Republic-of-Texas-Fold-Up-686703
Spradlin, M. P., & Munro, R. (2008). Texas Rangers: legendary lawmen. New York: Walker & Co..
Tehuacana Creek Treaty. (n.d.). Tehuacana Creek Treaty. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.indians.org/welker/liptrea1.htm
Texas 1836. (n.d.). Modular Building Associates. Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http://www.modularbuildingassociates.com/Texas1836map.jpg
Texas. (n.d.). Map Us. Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http://earlytexashistory.com/Tx1836/tx1836mapusmt.jpg
Texas Almanac - The Source For All Things Texan Since 1857. (n.d.). Revolution and the Republic of Texas. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.texasalmanac.com/topics/history/revolution-and-republic-texas
Texas Timeline (Key Events in early Texas). (n.d.). Texas Timeline (Key Events in early Texas). Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.lsjunction.com/events/events.htm
Texian Independence Convention at Washington 1836. (n.d.). Texian Independence Convention at Washington 1836. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/consultations6.htm
The Treaties of Velasco. (n.d.). - Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/treasures/republic/velasco-01.html
U.S. Mexican War. (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/timeline_flash.html
World Quote. (n.d.). James K. Polk Quotes, President of USA ~. Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http://worldquote.blogspot.com/2011/02/james-k-polk-quote.html
Texas Declaration of Independence was enacted at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 2, 1836, effectively creating the Republic of Texas.
The Treaties of Velasco 1836: provided that hostilities would cease and that Santa Anna would withdraw his forces below the Rio Grande and not take up arms again against Texas.
Bird's Fort Treaty Ratification Proclamation, 1843 Sam Houston made Indian policy: to treat with any and all Indians on the Frontiers of Texas.
The Treaty of Annexation: The people of Texas having, at the time of adopting their constitution, expressed by an almost unanimous vote, their desire to be incorporated into the Union of the United States.
Tehuacana Creek Treaty October 9, 1844: Between the Republic of Texas and the Comanche, Keechi, Waco, Caddo, Anadarko, Ioni, Delaware, Shawnee, Cherokee, Lipan and Tawakoni tribes of Indians, concluded and signed at Tehuacana Creek: both parties are now willing to open the path of lasting peace, friendship and trade, and are desirous to establish certain solemn rules for the regulation of their mutual intercourse:
Treaty of Hidalgo 1848: an official end to the Mexican-American War & Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary with the United States.
The land between the Llano and Colorado rivers was given to settlers with the requirement that they settle and survey the land by fall of 1847, but the land was already Comanche hunting grounds.
Texas did not receive the full support it wanted from the U.S. Americans did not want to get involved. They even advised Texas not to split from Mexico, fearing a war with Mexico. President Jackson wanted to add Texas to the U.S. because they believed in Manifest Destiny. They believed it was America's destiny to inquire all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Texas would just be one huge piece of this puzzle.
819 treaty between U.S. and Spain stating that the U.S. would not seek any land West of the Sabine River-the river that borders between Texas and Louisiana. If Jackson acquired Texas, this would go against this treaty and mean a possible war with Mexico. Texas could also be added as a slave state which Jackson did not want to add another slave state. This could tip the balance of free and slave states and cause a possible war. The U.S. was the first country to recognize Texas as a free republic.
Texas in Debt
Americans pledged $100,000 in loans to Texas where they'd have to repay later. Citizens gave about $25,000 to Texas to fight the war and others donated land and goods to the Texas cause. Different states donated cannons, muskets and even food to Texas. More than 2,000 men from Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee fought for Texas.
Treaties of Velasco
After the Revolution, Sam Houston forced Santa Anna to withdraw his troops from Texas. Santa Anna promised to work out a peace treaty with Texas.
a. Santa Anna agreed to end the war.
b. Mexican army had to withdraw south of the Rio Grande
c. All prisoners of war were released on both sides.
d. Santa Anna would be released as soon as believed safe to do so.
Burnet and Santa Anna signed a secret treaty. The Texans agreed to release Santa Anna under certain terms.
a. Santa Anna agreed to never invade Texas again.
b. Santa Anna will agree to recognize Texas as an independent nation.
c. Santa Anna agreed to sign a trade agreement with Texas.
d. VERY IMPORTANT FOR LATER EVENTS-the two leaders agreed to set the Rio Grande River as the border between Texas and Mexico.
Many were upset about the agreement. On June 3, about 200 protested and tried to seize Santa Anna. Burnet saw that he would have to ensure Santa Anna's safety or back out of his agreement. Mexico then refused to accept the Treaties of Velasco because Santa Anna signed them while a prisoner. Santa Anna was released to Washington D.C. to speak to President Jackson where he was set free. Mexico did not recognize Texas as an independent nation and they did not agree to their borders.
As you know, Santa Anna is Sam Houston's enemy. Look in your book on page 149 for some trivial information on Santa Anna.
The President of the Republic of Texas
Burnet was interim president.
Sam Houston was elected in 1836
Comanches raided Texas settlements
Unrest in the army
Texas was deeply in debt
Foreign policy-dealing with issues outside of Texas
Avoid conflict with Mexico
Ratify the constitution of 1836
Texas to be annexed into the U.S.
opposed citizens wanted to avoid war with Mexico, avoid adding another slave state
Jackson, President of U.S. recognized Texas as an independent nation on his last day of office
no other nations recognized Texas at this time
Relations with Mexico
Mexico rejected the treaties
Rejected the Rio Grande as Southern border
Many wanted to fight Mexico again, but Texas lacked money to do so.
Domestic Policy; 3 goals:
Gain control of the Texas Army
Keep peace in Texas
Most of the troops returned home.
New soldiers from the U.S.
Attacking Mexico was exciting to the Army
Army commander, Huston, challenged the newly appointed commander, Johnston, to a duel and shot him. Johnston did not die.
Houston ordered all troops on leave. If they were needed, they'd be called.
Texas Rangers guarded the frontier
Houston respected the Indians, he lived among the Cherokee for a number of years.
tried to create treaties-Congress refused to ratify the treaties
create trading posts-most never opened
Indians did not trust settlers
Texans wanted the Indian's land
more than $1 million in debt
few countries would lend money to Texas
cut gov't spending
placed taxes on imports, property and livestock
create currency-had no silver or gold to back currency-used land
gave away land
1838-in debt by $3 million
Battle of Plum Creek
(12 August 1840)
The boldest of the Indian invasions in Texas, occurred in August of 1840 and culminated in the Battle of Plum Creek. Hostilities between the Indians and the Texans had been escalating for several years. They reached a peak in early 1840 in what became known as the
Council House Fight in San Antonio.
The Indians had come to San Antonio on what started out as a peace mission, the were actually returning a hostage they had taken, but a dispute ended in the death of seven Texans and over thirty-five Indians. As a result, the already diminished trust between the Texans and Indians totally collapsed, and the Indians began making plans for retaliation.
The counterstrike began in early August, when a war party of about 600 Comanches and Kiowas descended from the Texas hill country all the way to Victoria and nearby Linnville on the Gulf of Mexico. They carefully avoided the settlements on the Guadalupe valley, and thus made the trip undetected when they reached Victoria on the afternoon of August 6. After raiding and looting on the Texas coast, the Indians began their return, backtracking northward just east of the Guadalupe river.
By then, news of the raids on Victoria and Linnville had spread through the settlements. Volunteers from Gonzales under Matthew Caldwell and from Bastrop under Ed Burleson were soon gathered and on the way to the site agreed upon to intercept the Indians.
The Comanches were already in sight as the Texans joined forces. As the Texans approached, most of the Indians formed a line in front of their horses and pack mules. After some time, however, the Indians began retreating and separating, so that the battle turned into a long running fight.
The Comanches lost over eighty warriors in the battle that stretched for almost fifteen miles. Others were captured, including squaws and children, and much of the plunder taken at Victoria and Linnville was recovered. The Texans lost one man killed and seven wounded.
Under Lamar, a new capital, Austin, which was named in memory of Stephen F. Austin, was created. Lamar didn't want the capital to be in a place named after a man he despised!
made 3 attempts to resume peace with Mexico, but failed.
tried and failed to get loans from other countries
Congress gave each county 18,000 acres to sell to pay for schools and a university (UT)
strengthened army and navy-bought 6 ships
fired Houston's soldiers, created a new army
Had Tx. Rangers fight off Cherokees and Mexicans because he believed they were tied together to overtake Tx.-page 217
The cost of Indian wars was $2.5 million
Santa Fe Expedition
Lamar wanted Santa Fe, N.M. and eastern N.M to join Texas
wanted to expand the Republic to the Pacific Ocean
This area belonged to Mexico, although Lamar claimed that it is apart of Texas because of the Rio Grande River serving as its border
Organized an Expedition of 320
People of Santa Fe captured the expedition and sent them to prison in Mexico City
Houston's Second Term
Objectives: Financially stable, end disputes with Mexicans and Indians.
Tried to sell the Navy. Navy stayed out to sea until Houston declared them pirates. Came back to Galveston where they were prevented from selling their ships and kept the Navy.
Peace treaty with Caddoes then with the Grand Council
Several invasions with Mexico
Black Bean Episode
Texans invaded Mexico and captured and killed several. Mexico captured those Texans and ordered them dead. Out of the 176 prisoners, 17 will die or execute 1 out of 10 captives. Captives had to pick a bean out of a mug. Whoever picked the white bean, lived, whoever picked the black one, died.
The decimation took place by the drawing of the black and white beans from a small earthen mug. The white ones signified exemption, and the black, death. One hundred and fifty-nine white beans were placed in the bottom of the mug, and seventeen black ones placed upon the top of them. The beans were not stirred, and had so slight a shake that it was perfectly clear they had not been mixed together... Soon after, the fated (those who were holding black beans) were placed in a separate courtyard, where about dark they were executed"
Santa Anna strikes again! He sent troops to Texas where they captured Victoria, Goliad and San Antonio. Texas militia reached San Antonio where Mexicans were already gone. Houston worried the Mexicans could capture Austin so he sent all the archives to Houston. People thought Houston was relocating the capital at first and resisted, They fired canons at the Rangers who had the archives. In the end, the archives stayed in Austin.
Battle of Salado Creek
Mexicans returned again to San Antonio!
Texas volunteers gathered around Salado Creek. Mexicans outnumbered Texans by 800. Texans planned to lure their enemy into a trap. A group hid at the creek, while others rode horses to San Antonio and dared Mexicans to fight. It worked! Mexicans chased them and rode into an open field while te Texans drove out the Mexicans from San Antonio. Only one Texan died.
Nearby, a group of 50 Texans came to fight off the Mexicans. Before Captain Dawson's group reached the battlefield, Mexican troops surrounded them and opened fire. Dawson surrendered, Mexicans kept shooting killing most of the the Texans and taking prisoner the others.
Houston sent General Somervell to make sure the Mexicans had left Texas. He captured Laredo. However, he sent his troops back to Gonzales when he thought a further invasion would fail.
About 300 of Somervell's men refused to leave Ier, Mexico and chose Fisher as their leader. They attacked the town of Mier. Scouts told Fisher there was a large Mexican force there, but he attacked anyway. Texans were low on gunpowder, water and food. Texans surrendered and were marched to Mexico City. They escaped on the way but were recaptured. This led to the Black Bean Episode.
fought in Texas Revolution
continued Houston's policies, peace with Indians, Mexico, and trying to convince the U.S. to annex Texas
protection from Mexico and Indians and against attack
Debt-few had money to pay taxes and government had little other source of income and couldn't borrow money
currency-Tx. could use U.S. currency
most citizens were U.S. born
family ties to U.S.
Balance of slave/nonslave states
too much debt in Texas for U.S. to deal with
Upsetting Mexico into a possible war
Resolution of 1845
rejected earlier treaty for annexation
Texas join U.S. after approved constitution
Texas keep public lands, but money made from the land must be used to pay debts of the Republic
Texas could itself upto five different states
Texas will be a slave state
Texas becomes the 28th state of the U.S. on March 3, 1845