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Group 4: Does Media Influence Bystander Apathy In Cases Of Domestic Violence

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Emily Stevenson

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Transcript of Group 4: Does Media Influence Bystander Apathy In Cases Of Domestic Violence

Berkowitz, AD. (2003).
The Social Norms Approach: Theory, Research and Annotated
Bibliography
. Retrieved from www.alanberkowitz.com/articles/social_norms.pdf

Howe, A. (1997). The War Against Women: Media Representations of Men's Violence.
Violence Against Women in Australia
, 3(59), 59 – 75 Retrieved from https://lms.rmit.edu.au/courses/1/SOCU2116_1450/groups/_146665_1//_4983468_1/Violence%20Against%20Women-1997-HOWE-59-75.pdf

Noar, S. M. (2006). A 10-Year Retrospective of Research in Health Mass Media Campaigns: Where Do We Go From Here?.
Journal Of Health Communication
, 11(1), 21-42. doi:10.1080/10810730500461059

Powell, A. (2012).
More than Ready: Bystander action to prevent violence against women in the Victorian community
. Retrieved from https://lms.rmit.edu.au/courses/1/SOCU2116_1450/groups/_146665_1//_4952448_1/Powell%202012_More%20than%20Ready.pdf

World Health Organisation. (2009).
Changing cultural and social norms that support violence
. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/norms.pdf


Does Media Influence Bystander Apathy In Cases Of Domestic Violence
Angela, Brigit, Daniel, Deanne, Emily, Nicola, & Sylvi
Introduction to Bystander Apathy
As name suggests the more people present at an emergency or assault the less likely an individual is going to react or intercede, as they feel the responsibility is shared between all the bystanders(Latane & Darley, 1970). With this theory the individual feels less responsibility to react as they usually expect someone else to react or that someone else is calling for help(Darley & Latane, 1968, Powell, 2011 ).

There has been research into what the process is before someone acts as a prosocial bystander- the five stage model
1. Noticing the situation
2. Interpreting the event as requiring intervention
3. Assuming responsibility
4. Deciding how to help
5. Confidence in capacity to help
(Latene & Darley, 1970)

This is best understood across three levels micro (individual), meso (interpersonal, organisational) and macro (societal)
Micro: altruistic personality and past experience may make someone more likely to act
Meso: diffusion of responsibility
Macro: social norms may make some people more likely to act in certain situations and less likely to act in others
(Dovido and colleagues 2006)
Some research suggests that if a group or community has come to the joint decision around helping behaviours are more likely to promote individual intervention. If the idea is strong enough people may be more likely to help in the presence of others
(Harada 1985: 178)





Feminist theory, Bystander Apathy and Media
Domestic Violence
Domestic Violence Statistics
Media and Domestic Violence
Angela - DV media in Australia )White ribbon, etc)
Media, Domestic Violence and Social Norms
The Media and Social Norms
References
One major influence in our life that is said to alter and change the way we think, do and have opinions on certain issues, is the media. These rules or expectations of behaviour, known as socio-cultural norms, can often encourage violence (World Health Organisation, 2009). Assessing the media’s impact on society’s culture and norms may assist in explaining why we are prone to bystander apathy and violent behaviours.

Social norms that have been prevalent in the past include that 15% of people selected from a sample of 603 held the opinion that men’s violence against women is justified if it is found she is having an affair, and a surprising 6% stated it would be acceptable if the women failed to complete her household duties (Howe, 1997).

It was found that individuals are most likely to take pro-social bystander action when they identify the behaviour to be serious and when there is likely to be strong support for such action (Powell, 2012). The media, whether it be newspapers, television programs, campaigns or radio have the ability, and quite frankly an obligation to emphasise the availability of support and highlight acceptable social norms and pro-social behaviour. Furthermore, Powell (2012) places importance on how the media can develop their reporting in order to facilitate transformations in culture, behaviours and attitudes that are the cause of domestic violence.

Overall, these findings point to the importance of creating community and organisational norms and cultures that assure individuals that bystander behaviour are acceptable. Powell (2012) identified that this is especially important in cases where more indirect and accepted forms of discriminatory behaviours occurs, such as sexist jokes. This is due to the fact that these more subtle forms of abuse contribute to more serious violence-supportive attitudes.

Domestic violence takes many forms of behaviour, such as physical, psychological and sexual abuse, and can occur in a myriad of relationships. It is also referred to as intimate partner violence in much of the literature. The definition of domestic violence has expanded to include more than traditional marital relationships, and includes relationships such as same-sex and de facto.
Despite this expansion of the domestic violence definition, there are still many misunderstandings amongst the general public. One study found that 90% of people did not recognise verbal, emotional, and sexual abuse as forms of domestic violence (Cismaru, Jensen & Lavack, 2013). Further, despite increasing knowledge that males do make up a percentage of domestic violence victims, there are still many negative views and attitudes towards male victims, highlighting how social norms and values influence and affect intimate partner violence. This phenomena is perfectly highlighted in an anti-violence campaign by the ManKind initiative.
It is also referred to as intimate partner violence in much of the literature. The definition of domestic violence has expanded to include more than traditional marital relationships, and includes relationships such as same-sex and de facto. Despite this expansion of the domestic violence definition, there are still many misunderstandings amongst the general public. One study found that 90% of people did not recognise verbal, emotional, and sexual abuse as forms of domestic violence (7). Further, despite increasing knowledge that males make up ?? % of domestic violence victims, there are still many negative views and attitudes towards male victims, highlighting how social norms and values influence and affect intimate partner violence. This phenomena is perfectly highlighted in a anti-violence campaign by the ManKind Initiative.

It is also referred to as intimate partner violence in much of the literature. The definition of domestic violence has expanded to include more than traditional marital relationships, and includes relationships such as same-sex and de facto. Despite this expansion of the domestic violence definition, there are still many misunderstandings amongst the general public. One study found that 90% of people did not recognise verbal, emotional, and sexual abuse as forms of domestic violence (7). Further, despite increasing knowledge that males make up ?? % of domestic violence victims, there are still many negative views and attitudes towards male victims, highlighting how social norms and values influence and affect intimate partner violence. This phenomena is perfectly highlighted in a anti-violence campaign by the ManKind Initiative.

The effects of domestic violence are significant, not only causing financial costs to society by medical and legal care, but it is also the leading cause of homelessness for women and their children. Most significantly, domestic violence causes a number of Australian deaths each year
Despite social awareness of this kind of violence, many social values reflect the traditional idea that domestic violence is a private matter which should be dealt with out of view from the public. This is reinforced by the media’s reporting of domestic violence homicides, which often neglects to talk about the long history of abuse behind the homicides. Looking at the statistics, however, challenges this idea that domestic violence is a private matter, as its effects on society surely qualifies it as a public issue.

Just like other forms of aggression, domestic violence is learnt through social interactions and institutions. The mass media is one of the institutions that plays a significant role in violence behaviour. Domestic violence is a prevalent issue, and due to the significant effects it has on victims, it is important to look into the relationship between society values and the crime, in order to create appropriate prevention methods.

It has been shown that media coverage of domestic violence can change how it is viewed as a public issue (Maxwell, Huxford, Borum & Hornik, 2000). For example, instances of celebrity intimate violence bring the issue into light, and usually result in the reporting of other domestic violence issues in the community. Overtime, there have been improvements on how domestic violence issues are framed, with less blame being placed on the victim. However, there are still many stereotypes reflected in media reports. This is an issue, as it has been shown that media coverage can change attitudes and behaviours in relation to health issues. Inadequate reporting and inefficient campaigns are detrimental to changing social norms concerning violence in relationships, and can have adverse effects, such as increasing violent behaviour and bystander apathy.

Specific media campaigns have been shown to have positive effects on violent behaviours, as mentioned in previous slides. In these circumstances the media is a vital tool for Australia, as it is able to reach a wide audience, and has the potential to convey this violence as a socially unacceptable behaviour.
Unfortunately, media coverage and campaigns alone are not enough to change domestic violence rates. This is often because they lack theoretical basis, and funding, and are constantly competing with other types of negative media, and general social norms. Whilst the media has the potential to have a positive effect on domestic violence rates, its effects currently vary, with current coverage of these issues containing myths about the crime, victims and perpetrators, which skews public perception. Perception is important as it plays a crucial role in bystander apathy, as mentioned in previous slides. The effect of crime perception is exemplified in cross-cultural studies, where some cultures can be seen with lower bystander apathy rates than others.
One of the reasons that media campaigns fail, is because they focus on the individual. Whilst campaigns are focused on a widespread audience, they are usually targeted at individual actions. It is more important, however, to raise disapproval towards violence and extend intervention beyond specific circumstances where the actual violence occurs.
In cases of domestic violence, bystanders are not only the individuals who witness the violence unfolding, but refers to the community and the values and social norms it holds as a collective. There have been recent attempts to create prevention initiatives which focus on the role of the bystander. These are aimed at focusing on the whole community, rather than individual circumstances, and aim to decrease the inherent social values and stereotypes which breed partner violence behaviour. It involves urging individuals to play an active role in high-risk behaviours, such as when witnessing violence being inflicted on one partner by another, but also advocates the need for an active role in low-risk domestic violent issues. These include targeting broader attitudes concerning sexism, use of violence, and other related issues. These initiatives focus on targeting the underlying concerns in a hope to reduce the acceptability of violent behaviour, and therefore reduce domestic violence as a whole.

Bystanders in Domestic Violence
Examples of these interventions
Bringing in the Bystander is one of these such programs, which focuses on changing prosocial attitudes and behaviours concerning sexual violence.
Bystander apathy also commonly known as the bystander effect is a social psychological phenomenon that refers to individuals whom are reluctant to offer any form of assistance to a victim in the presence of others. Social psychologists Bibb Latané and John Darley propagated the notion of “Bystander Apathy” after the scandalous 1964 Kitty Genovese murder in Kew Gardens, New York. Bystander Apathy occurs in crowded situations where people tend to ignore the victim due to the diffusion of responsibility (Latan\'e & Darley, 1969).Studies shows that assistance offered in emergency situations are negatively correlated to the number of bystanders.
Studies have shown that increased exposure to violent behaviour has a numbing affect on the individual, and makes them less likely to help when they witness violent behaviour (Gentile & Anderson, 2003). Social norms are also known to have the biggest impact on problematic behaviours, including violence. Looking at today’s increase in social media use, individuals are being exposed to these problematic social values everyday, in subtle and obvious ways.
73% of women report that they have been victim of violence, at the hands of a partner or ex-partner (ANROWS, 2012).
Many Australians acknowledge that domestic violence is a highly prevalent issue within society, and also understand that violence against women can occur in many different forms, whether it be physical, emotional or sexual (VicHealth, 2014). VicHealth provided positive responses in relation to domestic violence and bystander intervention, with 98% of people who completed the study saying that they would intervene if they knew domestic violence was occurring to a family member or friend, and 92% said they would intervene if it was a stranger.
In one survey it was asked if participants whether they have witnessed any form of sexism against females. The term sexism was used because because it illicited the broadest understanding of violent, sexist or/and discriminatory behaviour (Powell, 2012). Less than half (47.6%) of participants involved in the study indicated that they actually did intervene when some form of sexism was occurring. However, the results showed that only 62.9% of females would intervene and only 28.5% of males would intervene if they witnessed sexist behaviour.
The likelihood of someone intervening and providing assistance to someone in need depends on whether the person believes that tehy are capable, and in this study results indicated that just over 50% of people know where to go for help or support in relation to domestic violence. Approximately 44% of Australians are aware of the readiness of police to respond to domestic violence calls.

Reference
Powell, A. (2012). More than Ready. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne.
VicHealth 2014 Australian's Attitude to Violence Against Women. Findings from the 2013 National Community Attitudes towards Violence Against Women (NCAS). Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne Australia.
Violence Against Women: Key Statistics. (2012). Retrieved from ANROWS fact sheet: http://www.anrows. org.au/sites/default/files/Violence-Against-Australian-Women-Key-Statistics-pdf

Some of the ways social media presents domestic violence issues
Contributing factors that affect the behavior
of an individual to either intervene or be a bystander

How individuals become desensitised
When this is paired to the effects of violence desensitisation, perhaps it is understandable why domestic violence rates are not falling, despite the efforts of advocacy organisations. This is why bystander opportunities and media reporting should be reframed to focus on wider social shifts, and not specific individual actions.
Firstly, holding a sense of responsibility, past research shows that an individual is more likely to assist friends instead of a strangers as they feel responsible for people that are known to them. Secondly, the group size, individuals are less likely to intervene in crowded situations due to the diffusion of responsibility. Thirdly, the pros and cons of helping a victim, individuals are less incline to get involved in dangerous situations. Fourthly, time which is a key reason why most individuals tend to be bystander. People take time to understand the situation and start weighing the cost and benefits. Finally, courage, many individuals are willing to help when they are confident about themselves and the situation (Darley & Larane, 1968). An interesting finding shows that strangers are more likely to assist females than males and in cases of violence against females by males, strangers consider it as being more serious and tend to intervene than violence against males by females (Laner, Benin & Ventrone, 2001). This inequality in gender shows stereotypical attitudes held by individuals in the society.
In a mass media article ‘The War against Women’ published in The Age newspaper and analysed by Howe (1997), had the effect of shocking people and creating awareness on the issue of domestic violence against women. Noar (2006) claimed that campaigns, such as this, are persuasive communication methods that can help address attitudes and behaviours covering a vast number of problems and audience groups. The articles evoked readers across the state to condemn this anti-social behaviour and in turn, empowered people to take a standpoint for what’s right. That is, harmony and respect between genders. The media, as a bystander in family violence has the capacity to endorse positive social norms and/or discourage negative attitudes in regards to gender roles within society (Powell, 2012). Howe (1997) emphasises this in saying that the issue of violence is unlikely to be brought under control unless the entire community can acknowledge that violence against women is not only unethical, but criminal.
As put forward by Powell (2012) the media may assist in influencing the improvement of social norms and individuals being more inclined to take pro-social bystander action by:
• increasing skills to take bystander action safely and successfully
• increasing knowledge of sexism, discrimination and violence towards women
• reducing the perceived disadvantages of taking bystander action

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The media does have a significant role in shaping the attitudes of the public and bystanders, especially in relation to domestic violence. Television, advertising, music and film all contribute in shaping gender roles and patriarchal values by sexualising women and creating a societal norm for violence against women. However, the media is not the only contributor to the normalisation of violence against women. Certainly, changing the style of the media can influence the attitudes and acceptability of violence against women. Flood and Pease (2006) believe that community attitudes are fundamental to the perpetration of violence against women. Cultural, individual, organizational, religious and societal factors all impact community attitudes of domestic violence. Different cultures can have different attitudes towards violence against women, some cultures may consider it a norm in the household and others will condemn it. This can be mainly due to religious factors, as religious teachings may support gender roles and therefore contribute to domestic violence and patriarchy. Flood and Pease (2006) further state that individual factors such as people who have experienced or witness violence at a younger age are more likely to adhere to violent supporting attitudes.
Organizational factors can also be a major contributor in violent attitudes towards women, especially within more masculine roles such as the military or police. Within these organisations there is an inherent sub-culture that normalizes sexism and sexist jokes, which are not condemned, rather they are encouraged.

Chabot, H., F., Tracy, T., L., Manning, C., A., & Poisson, C., A. (2009). Sex, attribution, and severity influence intervention decisions of informal helpers in domestic violence. J Interpers Violence, 24, 1696. doi 10.1177/0886260509331514
Cismaru, M., Jensen, G., & Lavack, A. M. (2013). If the noise coming from next door were loud music, you’d do something about it. Journal of Advertising, 39(4), 69-82. doi 10.2753/JOA0091-3367390405
Ganley, A. L. (2014). Understanding Domestic Violence. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.ecu.edu/tnwe/Endowment/Resources_files/improvinghealthcare_1.pdf
Australian Institute Of Criminology (2014). Family/Domestic Violence. Retrieved from http://www.aic.gov.au/crime_types/violence/domestic.html
Ganley, A. L. (2014). Understanding Domestic Violence. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.ecu.edu/tnwe/Endowment/Resources_files/improvinghealthcare_1.pdf
Banyard, V. L. (2011). Who will help prevent sexual violence: Creating an ecological model of bystander intervention. Psychology Of Violence, 1(3), 216-229. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/10.1037/a0023739
Goldstein, A. P. (1999). Aggression reduction strategies: Effective and ineffective. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(1), 40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/docview/195507306?accountid=13552
Graffunder, C., Noonan, R., Cox, P., & Wheaton, J. (2004). Report from the CDC. Through a public health lens. Preventing violence against women: an update from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Journal Of Women's Health (15409996), 13(1), 5-16. doi: 10.1089/154099904322836401

Ultimately societal attitudes of violence against women will have a significant influence on bystander apathy, as the more domestic violence is considered as an acceptable norm, there will be less intervention and condemnation from bystanders and the community. Reforming the media can only attribute to a small percentage of violent attitudes towards women.

Unless there is significant effort to achieve widespread reform of all these factors that contribute to this violence, victim blaming will increase, as the community will believe the offender was provoked to resort to violence. Individuals who have been victimized will feel less inclined to report to the authorities because of their perception of people’s attitudes and the community and bystanders will not intervene when they witness violence perpetrated against women.

Cismaru, M., Jensen, G., & Lavack, A. M. (2013). If the noise coming from next door were loud music, you’d do something about it. Journal of Advertising, 39(4), 69-82. doi 10.2753/JOA0091-3367390405
Gadomski, A. M., Tripp, M., Wolff, D. A., Lewis, C., & Jenkins, P. (2001). Impact of a Rural Domestic Violence Prevention Campaign. The Journal of Rural Health, 17(3), 266-277. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2001.tb00964.x
Maxwell, K. A., Huxford, J., Borum, C., & Hornik, R. (2000). Covering domestic violence: How the O.J. Simpson case shaped reporting of domestic violence in the news media. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 77. doi 10.1177/10776990000770020
Cismaru, M., Jensen, G., & Lavack, A. M. (2013). If the noise coming from next door were loud music, you’d do something about it. Journal of Advertising, 39(4), 69-82. doi 10.2753/JOA0091-3367390405
Potter, S. J., Moynihan, M. M., Stapleton, J. G., & Banyard, V. L. (2009). Empowering bystanders to prevent campus violence against women: A preliminary evaluation of a poster campaign. Violence Against Women, 15, 106. doi 10.1177/107780120832748

Banyard, V. L. (2011). Who will help prevent sexual violence: Creating an ecological model of bystander intervention. Psychology Of Violence, 1(3), 216-229. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/10.1037/a0023739
Cismaru, M., Jensen, G., & Lavack, A. M. (2013). If the noise coming from next door were loud music, you’d do something about it. Journal of Advertising, 39(4), 69-82. doi 10.2753/JOA0091-3367390405
Gidycz, C., A., Orchowski, L., M., & Berkowitz, A., D. (2011). Preventing sexual aggression among college men: An evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program. Violence Against Women, 17(6). doi 10.1177/1077801211409727
Potter, S. J., Moynihan, M. M., Stapleton, J. G., & Banyard, V. L. (2009). Empowering bystanders to prevent campus violence against women: A preliminary evaluation of a poster campaign. Violence Against Women, 15, 106. doi 10.1177/107780120832748
Wakefield, M. A., Loken, B., & Hornik, R. C. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. The Lancet, 376(9748), 1261-1271. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60809-4
McMahon, S., & Banyard, V., L. (2011). When can I help? A conceptual framework for the prevention of sexual violence through bystander intervention. Trauma Violence Abuse, n/a. doi 10.1177/1524838011426015
Potter, S. J., Moynihan, M. M., Stapleton, J. G., & Banyard, V. L. (2009). Empowering bystanders to prevent campus violence against women: A preliminary evaluation of a poster campaign. Violence Against Women, 15, 106. doi 10.1177/107780120832748
Crime Solutions (2014). Program Profile: Bringing In The Bystander. Retrieved from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=159
Gentile, D., A., & Anderson, A. (2003). Violent video games: The newest media violence hazard. In D. A. Gentile (Eds). Media Violence in Children: A Complete Guide For Parents. London: Praeger.
Witte, T., H., & Mulla, M., M. (2012). Social norms for intimate partner violence in situations involving victim infidelity. J Interpers Violence, 27, 3389. doi 10.1177/0886260512445381

Bushman, B., J., & Anderson, C., A. (2009). Comfortably numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others. Psychological Science, 20, 273. doi 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02287.x
McMahon, S., & Banyard, V., L. (2011). When can I help? A conceptual framework for the prevention of sexual violence through bystander intervention. Trauma Violence Abuse, n/a. doi 10.1177/1524838011426015
Mentors in Violence Protection (2014). Homepage. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/mvpnational
One In Four (2014). One In Four USA. Retrieved from http://www.oneinfourusa.org/index.php
Feminist Theory, Bystanders and the Media
 
From the feminist theory perspective, violence against women occurs due to gender inequality and male dominance structures (Yodanis, 2004). There is certainly evidence in research to support those males who hold traditional gender role beliefs are more likely to commit violence against women (Vic Health, 2011). Considering feminist theories place the primary source of violence in societal attitudes of women, primary prevention should also target gender inequality.
Earlier models of prevention have focused predominantly on the female as the victim in family violence (Powell, 2011). Historically, prevention models consisted of support programs and services for victims. The feminist approach to family violence prevention highlights the relationship between gender roles and violence rather than focusing upon the victim.
Bystander action has been identified as a crucial source for primary prevention (Powell, 2012). Bystander intervention should not just be considered as the intervention in a specific event, such as a violent attack, but rather as challenging and changing the societal norms that enable and promote gender inequality. Carlson (2008) demonstrates how males, as bystanders a lack of intervention implicates a question of their own masculinity. An extension of this would be the questioning of masculinity in gender inequality.
The media has been an active tool in recent family violence campaigns. Whilst it is difficult to measure the impact of media, there is evidence to support they raise awareness of specific issues (Noar, 2006). Media has the ability to ‘sell’ social norms and values by encouraging prosocial bystander behaviour and promoting social change (Powell, 2011).

In Australia, the White Ribbon Campaign encourages men to actively commit, never excuse or be silent regarding family violence (White Ribbon, 2014). The campaign encourages bystanders to speak out. The White Ribbon foundation was established via UNIFEM (White Ribbon, 2014). UNIFEM is the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, their primary role is to establish gender equality as a basic human right (UN Women, 2010).
Another social marketing campaign that actively seeks the involvement of bystanders is the “Know Your Power: Step in Speak Up” in the US (Potter et al., 2009). The campaign focus is on University students and encourages intervention and awareness. A catch phrase of the campaign is “You can make a difference,” placing a direct responsibility on the bystander. This program had a positive effect on societal attitudes and awareness to family violence (Potter, et al., 2009).
The media, as a bystander in family violence has an ability to promote negative or positive social norms in gender roles. The Our Watch Organization specifically targets the how journalists report on incidents of family violence. It actively seeks to improve reporting to enable change in culture, behaviours and attitudes that underlie family violence. Its campaign promotes primary prevention through media.
Through a feminist theory perspective, the primary prevention of family violence lies in the changing of gender inequality and strongly held gender role beliefs. The media plays a couple of roles in the primary prevention. It can encourage the bystander to intervene and raise social awareness through campaigns. The media in itself is also a bystander that through its own attitudes towards family violence and how it is portrays victims and offenders can actively affect societal attitudes.
 



Feminist Theory, Bystanders and the Media
 
From the feminist theory perspective, violence against women occurs due to gender inequality and male dominance structures (Yodanis, 2004). There is certainly evidence in research to support those males who hold traditional gender role beliefs are more likely to commit violence against women (Vic Health, 2011). Considering feminist theories place the primary source of violence in societal attitudes of women, primary prevention should also target gender inequality.
Earlier models of prevention have focused predominantly on the female as the victim in family violence (Powell, 2011). Historically, prevention models consisted of support programs and services for victims. The feminist approach to family violence prevention highlights the relationship between gender roles and violence rather than focusing upon the victim.
Bystander action has been identified as a crucial source for primary prevention (Powell, 2012). Bystander intervention should not just be considered as the intervention in a specific event, such as a violent attack, but rather as challenging and changing the societal norms that enable and promote gender inequality. Carlson (2008) demonstrates how males, as bystanders a lack of intervention implicates a question of their own masculinity. An extension of this would be the questioning of masculinity in gender inequality.
The media has been an active tool in recent family violence campaigns. Whilst it is difficult to measure the impact of media, there is evidence to support they raise awareness of specific issues (Noar, 2006). Media has the ability to ‘sell’ social norms and values by encouraging prosocial bystander behaviour and promoting social change (Powell, 2011).

 
References
 
Carlson, M. (2008). ‘I'd Rather Go Along and Be Considered A Man: Masculinity and Bystander Intervention.’ The Journal of Men's Studies 16(1): 3–17.
Noar, S. M. (2006). ‘A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: Where dowe go from here?’ Journal of Health Communication 11(1): 21–42.

Our Watch. (2014). Viewed sept 24, retrieved from http://www.ourwatch.org.au

Potter, S. J., Moynihan, M. M. et al. (2009). ‘Empowering bystanders to prevent campus violence against women: A preliminary evaluation of a poster campaign.’ Violence Against Women 15(1): 106.

Powell, A (2011). Review of bystander approaches in support of preventing violence against women. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne. Available at http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/Publications/Freedom-from- violence/Review-of-bystander-approaches-in-support-of-preventing-violence- against-women.aspx

Powell, A (2012) More than Ready. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne.
 
UN Women. (2010). Viewed sept 23, retrieved from http://www.unwomen.org/en
 
VicHealth (2011). Preventing Violence Against Women in Australia: Research Summary. Victorian Heath Promotion Foundation, Melbourne.
 
White Ribbon. (2014). Viewed September 22, retrieved from http://www.whiteribbon.org.au
 
White Ribbon Foundation. (2014). Hey mate, don’t be afraid to stand up. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3P9Golqq0OU&list=PLd1FUljnzCl7pjFeG6F3nBmNj5xs2Vdrq&index=1
 
Yodanis, C.L. (2004) Gender Inequality, Violence Against Women, and Fear: A Cross-National Test of the Feminist Theory of Violence Against Women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 655-675.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Feminist Theory, Bystanders and the Media
 
From the feminist theory perspective, violence against women occurs due to gender inequality and male dominance structures (Yodanis, 2004). There is certainly evidence in research to support those males who hold traditional gender role beliefs are more likely to commit violence against women (Vic Health, 2011). Considering feminist theories place the primary source of violence in societal attitudes of women, primary prevention should also target gender inequality.
Earlier models of prevention have focused predominantly on the female as the victim in family violence (Powell, 2011). Historically, prevention models consisted of support programs and services for victims. The feminist approach to family violence prevention highlights the relationship between gender roles and violence rather than focusing upon the victim.
Bystander action has been identified as a crucial source for primary prevention (Powell, 2012). Bystander intervention should not just be considered as the intervention in a specific event, such as a violent attack, but rather as challenging and changing the societal norms that enable and promote gender inequality. Carlson (2008) demonstrates how males, as bystanders a lack of intervention implicates a question of their own masculinity. An extension of this would be the questioning of masculinity in gender inequality.
The media has been an active tool in recent family violence campaigns. Whilst it is difficult to measure the impact of media, there is evidence to support they raise awareness of specific issues (Noar, 2006). Media has the ability to ‘sell’ social norms and values by encouraging prosocial bystander behaviour and promoting social change (Powell, 2011).

From the feminist theory perspective, violence against women occurs due to gender inequality and male dominance structures (Yodanis, 2004). There is certainly evidence in research to support those males who hold traditional gender role beliefs are more likely to commit violence against women (Vic Health, 2011). Considering feminist theories place the primary source of violence in societal attitudes of women, primary prevention should also target gender inequality.
Earlier models of prevention have focused predominantly on the female as the victim in family violence (Powell, 2011). Historically, prevention models consisted of support programs and services for victims. The feminist approach to family violence prevention highlights the relationship between gender roles and violence rather than focusing upon the victim.
Bystander action has been identified as a crucial source for primary prevention (Powell, 2012). Bystander intervention should not just be considered as the intervention in a specific event, such as a violent attack, but rather as challenging and changing the societal norms that enable and promote gender inequality. Carlson (2008) demonstrates how males, as bystanders a lack of intervention implicates a question of their own masculinity. An extension of this would be the questioning of masculinity in gender inequality.
The media has been an active tool in recent family violence campaigns. Whilst it is difficult to measure the impact of media, there is evidence to support they raise awareness of specific issues (Noar, 2006). Media has the ability to ‘sell’ social norms and values by encouraging prosocial bystander behaviour and promoting social change (Powell, 2011).

In Australia, the White Ribbon Campaign encourages men to actively commit, never excuse or be silent regarding family violence (White Ribbon, 2014). The campaign encourages bystanders to speak out. The White Ribbon foundation was established via UNIFEM (White Ribbon, 2014). UNIFEM is the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, their primary role is to establish gender equality as a basic human right (UN Women, 2010).
Another social marketing campaign that actively seeks the involvement of bystanders is the “Know Your Power: Step in Speak Up” in the US (Potter et al., 2009). The campaign focus is on University students and encourages intervention and awareness. A catch phrase of the campaign is “You can make a difference,” placing a direct responsibility on the bystander. This program had a positive effect on societal attitudes and awareness to family violence (Potter, et al., 2009).
The media, as a bystander in family violence has an ability to promote negative or positive social norms in gender roles. The Our Watch Organization specifically targets the how journalists report on incidents of family violence. It actively seeks to improve reporting to enable change in culture, behaviours and attitudes that underlie family violence. Its campaign promotes primary prevention through media.
Through a feminist theory perspective, the primary prevention of family violence lies in the changing of gender inequality and strongly held gender role beliefs. The media plays a couple of roles in the primary prevention. It can encourage the bystander to intervene and raise social awareness through campaigns. The media in itself is also a bystander that through its own attitudes towards family violence and how it is portrays victims and offenders can actively affect societal attitudes.
References
 
Carlson, M. (2008). ‘I'd Rather Go Along and Be Considered A Man: Masculinity and Bystander Intervention.’ The Journal of Men's Studies 16(1): 3–17.
Noar, S. M. (2006). ‘A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: Where dowe go from here?’ Journal of Health Communication 11(1): 21–42.

Our Watch. (2014). Viewed sept 24, retrieved from http://www.ourwatch.org.au

Potter, S. J., Moynihan, M. M. et al. (2009). ‘Empowering bystanders to prevent campus violence against women: A preliminary evaluation of a poster campaign.’ Violence Against Women 15(1): 106.

Powell, A (2011). Review of bystander approaches in support of preventing violence against women. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne. Available at http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/Publications/Freedom-from- violence/Review-of-bystander-approaches-in-support-of-preventing-violence- against-women.aspx

Powell, A (2012) More than Ready. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Melbourne.
 
UN Women. (2010). Viewed sept 23, retrieved from http://www.unwomen.org/en
 
VicHealth (2011). Preventing Violence Against Women in Australia: Research Summary. Victorian Heath Promotion Foundation, Melbourne.
 
White Ribbon. (2014). Viewed September 22, retrieved from http://www.whiteribbon.org.au
 
White Ribbon Foundation. (2014). Hey mate, don’t be afraid to stand up. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3P9Golqq0OU&list=PLd1FUljnzCl7pjFeG6F3nBmNj5xs2Vdrq&index=1
 
Yodanis, C.L. (2004) Gender Inequality, Violence Against Women, and Fear: A Cross-National Test of the Feminist Theory of Violence Against Women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 655-675.
 
 

Dahlberg, L.L., Krug, G.E., Lozano, R., Mercy, A.J., Zwi, B.A. (2002). World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: WHO

Flood, M., & Pease,B. (2006). The Factors Influencing Community Attitudes in Relation to Violence Against Women: A Critical Review of the Literature, Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. 2-76.

Pease, B & Flood, M. (2008). Rethinking the significance of attitudes in preventing men’s violence against women. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 43(44), 547–561.

Vichealth. (2010). National Survey on Community Attitudes to Violence Against Women 2009. Changing Cultures, Changing Attitudes – Preventing Violence Against Women. A Summary of Findings. Melbourne: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/~/media/ResourceCentre/PublicationsandResources/PVAW/NCAS_CommunityAttitudes_report_2010.ashx




Theories of bystander apathy: - Social psychology
Theory of planned behaviour
Routine Activity Theory
RAT suggests that in order for a crime to occur it needs three things:

A target/ victim
Motivated offender
Absences of capable guardianship
(Cohen & Felson 1979)

However in relation to violence against women it is not seen as appropriate to suggest that women have to protect themselves from sexual or intimate partner violence. Therefore we should target the motivated offenders (mostly men) and the everyday guardianship (Sutton et al. 2008, Vichealth 2007, Powell 2011).


Rational Choice Theory
RCT focuses on the micro or individual factors that contribute to a crime. In particular it is based on the idea that offenders make rational decisions and therefore they weigh up the advantages of committing a crime against the disadvantages and then make their decision (Sutton et al. 2008, Powell 2011).

Therefore in order to reduce crime we need to increase the risks and decrease the rewards for criminal behaviour. This can be applied to violence against women in that if we increase the risk of being reported it may make a difference. However we must account for social normative risks and rewards for violent behaviour (Powell 2011).


Theory of prevention
In the area of violence against women bystander behaviour has been included the idea of preventing behaviour before it occurs. Primary prevention: attacking social norms and cultures that support violence over non-violence (Powell 2011). From this arises the need to challenge rigid gender roles and gender inequality (Vichealth 2007).

There is also the idea that men fear they may be seen as less masculine (Carlson 2008:3). Also that men are more likely to intervene if they feel other men will back them up (Fabiano & Colleagues, 2003). This leads to the idea of ‘male peer support’ which is based on a study done on Canadian college campuses, where they found there was a culture that supported coercion in sexual relationships which lead to a higher rate of sexual crimes (Schwartz & DeKeseredy 1997; 2000; Schwartz et al. 2001).
People’s attitudes even prosocial attitude towards helping people does not actually predict behaviour. Things that determine behaviour include:

Individual attitude’s and beliefs
Social norms
Individual perception of social norms
Perceived behaviour control
Individual intentions to act
(Fishbein & Ajzen 1975; 2010, Armitage & conner 2001)

In order to make bystander behaviour effective it has to be attacked on all levels

Individual attitudes and beliefs that promote violence against women
Perception of broad social norms on promoting violence against women
Individuals confidence and capacity to prevent violence against women
Intentions to act or behaviour in response to violence against women
(Powell, 2011)
Theory of planned behaviour
Diffusion of responsibility
Theories of bystander apathy: - Criminology
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