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Slavery From 1750-1900
Transcript of Slavery From 1750-1900
The town of Cartagena de Indias one of the most important ports Enslaved Africans entered Nueva Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama, as well as parts of Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Costa Rica, Venezuela and Nicaragua). Emancipation in Colombia was slow eventhough the process started in 1821, it was only in 1852 (after three decades of social and political upheaval) that abolition was realized, and intractable slave-owners were being defeated by force. The disastrous consequences of the French's attempt at canal building caused local Panamanians to be reluctant to work for the contractors. The Americans were then forced to recruit workers from the Caribbean. By 1907, more than 20,000 black workers populated the Canal Zone Gyan Prakash had the opinion that the abolition of slavery in India in 1843 constructed the British government as a force of reason and progress, while it actually refashioned slavery and turned it into debt-bondage. He studied the changing fate of the kamias, a group of agricultural labourers who were largely members of a larger outcaste Bhuniya community in the Gaya district of south Bihar.
"The relations were structured as dependent ties that represented the landlord as a munificent patron and the labourer as his dependent subject." The kamias had long-term relations to landlords (maliks), who belonged to upper castes.
The kamia-malik tie was shaped like a patron-client relationship as is evident for example through the institution of kamiauti, a transaction of grain, money and a plot of land given to the kamia by the landlord if the former’s son married. Slavery was reconstituted as "voluntarily entered" bondage, in the case of the kamias The meaning of kamiauti changed notion with changing agrarian relations as a result of the 1843 Abolition Act. It was now seen as a "loan" but no longer an advance given by the malik to the kamia. After the abolition of slavery in 1843, the kamias had to sign contracts for the raising of loans in which they pleaded to pay back a given sum or remain in bondage until it was completly paid off. By 1840, the South grew 60 percent of the world's cotton and provided some 70 percent of the cotton consumed by the British textile industry. Slavery in the South paid for a substantial share of the capital, iron, and manufactured goods that laid the basis for American economic growth. In 1619, slavery began when the first African slaves were brought to the North American colony of Jamestown, Virginia to aid in the production of crops such as tobacco. It was practiced throughout the American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries, and African-American slaves helped build the economic foundations of the new nation. The invention of the cotton gin in 1793 solidified the central importance of slavery to the South's economy. By the mid-19th century, America's westward expansion, along with a growing abolition movement in the North, provoked a great debate over slavery that would tear the nation apart in the American Civil War (1861-1865). The Union victory freed the nation's 4 million slaves, but the legacy of slavery continued to influence American history, from the tumultuous years of Reconstruction (1865-77) to the civil rights movement that emerged a century after emancipation. -Genealogies of labour servitude in colonial India. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 1990)
-‘Terms of Servitude: The Colonial Discourse on Slavery and Bondage in India’. In: Martin A. Klein (Ed.), Breaking the Chains: Slavery, Bondage, and Emancipation in Modern Africa and Asia. (University of Wisconsin Press, 1993)
-‘Colonialism, Capitalism and the discourse of freedom’. International Review of Social History, 41 (Supplement), 1996, pp. 9-25.