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English as a global language

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Nadine Tee

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of English as a global language

English as a
global language

1. Introduction
2. Significant definitions
3. How English became a world language
4. English in different countries – Examples
5. The effects of English as a world language
6. Discussion

a simplified version of English used by non-native speakers, consisting of the most common words and phrases only
Lingua Franca

A language or a mixture of languages used as a medium of communication by people whose native languages are different
From the 11th to the 19th century, it was used in the Mediterranean Basin

It served as the language of commerce
...was an intermediary pidgin language used by speakers of Arabic with travellers from Western Europe
ELF = English as lingua franca
persons do neither share a common native tongue nor a common national culture

Conversation between
and a
English serves as a
lingua franca
A simplified form of speech that is usually a mixture of two or more languages, has a rudimentary grammar and vocabulary, is used for communication between groups speaking different languages, and is not spoken as a first or native language
Hawaiian Pidgin English
Creole language

[...] sometimes the pidgin becomes stable and established and comes to be spoken as a
by children: the language has then become a
, which quickly develops in complexity and is used in all functional settings.

International lingua francas
Most used international lingua francas: Arabic, Chinese, (English), French, Russian, Spanish

Speakers use fewer culture-bound vocabulary, items, idioms and speech acts

Example of Globish
British Empire on the March
British colonies in North America in the early 17th century, lost in 1776 -> Declaration of Independence
Australia conquered, settlers follow in 1788
original 270 languages of Aborigines suppressed; nowadays about 99% English; most indigenous languages either dead or dying
last British settlement established in New Zealand in the early 19th century;
Maori degraded to 2nd language of some Maori; English 100% dominant
by then Britain most powerful industrial and trading country
Saying: “The sun never sets on the English language”
Development in the USA
by 1790 English first language for about 4 million people
more settlers came in; territory was expanded into west
settlers did not cultivate their mother-tongues but adopted English- > economical reasons, but first to gain identity as “real Americans”
African slaves' languages ruthlessly suppressed; they were forced to adopt English
American population had reached almost 100 million thus vastly outnumbering any European peoples
USA take over
After Second World War Great Britain (and other European countries) bereft of resources and considerably stumped
USA with Marshall Plan and overall presence of troops; English already well spread
USA as fastest growing, strongest economic force, making substantial progress in several key industries:
finances, telecommunication and media; aeronautics; computer and similar technologies
esp. in science English is established as the publishing language;
“the development follows an old cycle. The internationally dominant position of a culture results in forceful expansion of its language, with the reverse correlate: the expansion of the language contributes, by its very expansion, to the prestige of the culture behind it.” (Kahane in Kachru, p. 214)
English belongs
to whom?
non-native speakers outnumber English mother-tongue users
“the spread has reached such an order of magnitude that it is now significantly fostered by the non-English mother-tongue world, rather than being predominantly dependent on resources, efforts, or personnel of the English mother-tongue world (Conrad and Fishman 1977).“ (Kachru 1992: 19 f)
Estimated: one – 1.5 billion people capable of communicating in EFL = ¼ of world population
In contrast: appr. 573 million native speakers (337 million L1 speakers; 236 million for L2)
Inner Circle: English = 1st language (native speakers; norm-providing)
Outer Circle: English coexisting with indigenous languages (official, media, politics etc.; norm-developing)
Expanding Circle: English taught as foreign language, not for internal use (EFL-speakers; norm-depending)
Three circles
to categorize English
Where is English used?
English is national or official language in 59 countries + British overseas territories
25 countries utilize English as lingua franca in business and/or everyday life or as educational language -> in most school it's first foreign language
English serves as official language for most international organizations and political unions like the United Nations, European Union, NATO, etc.
Sprachen mit mehr als 100 Millionen Sprechern und das Verhältnis von Primärsprachlern (Pspr) und Zweitsprachlern (Zspr) from
Die Weltgeschichte der Sprachen
by Harald Haarmann (2006; p.341)
Global English in general
English differs depending on the country it is spoken in
English as lingua franca is not trying to be perfect standard English

English in Germany:
used for academic purposes
lingua franca for communication with foreigners
either British or American English, no new variety for Germany

used for negotiations, especially when communicating with the USA
for official documents
attempting to support the language of every member state, but: “[e]xternally the EU has become monolingual” (Phillipson)

English in the EU:
English in India:
- two official languages, English and Hindi, but more than 400 other languages are spoken
- numbers from 1995:
- 935.7 million inhabitants
- 37 million (about 4%) speakers with functional command of English
- (200 million Indians with at least some knowledge of English
- English is de facto India’s primary official language
- used for: national administration, bureaucracy, education, print-media communication and advertising, intellectual and literary writing, social interaction
- lingua franca for interaction across different language communities within India
- Children learn English in addition to Hindi and their local language
- Indian English as variety of English + Indian English identity is emerging

Indian English
English in South Africa:
- 11 official languages, among these English and Afrikaans
- English is used for public and official purposes
- numbers from 1995:
- 41,465,000 inhabitants
- 3.6 million native English speakers
- 10 million speakers with functional command of English
- South Africans usually learn Afrikaans or English and at least one Bantu language
- varying or lacking English language proficiency among black or colored South Africans leads to disadvantages attempts by government to use more indigenous languages
- new variety of English: South African English

South African English
Effects of English as a global language
cultural globalization due to export of TV shows from the USA and books from the USA and the UK
economical advantages for the countries that export culture and learning material
English as a means to covertly introduce cultural or political agendas or Christian belief in foreign countries
new varieties of English emerge

Effects of English as a global language
people may become monolingual in English
social exclusion for people with insufficient command of English
loss of indigenous languages
fear of domain loss: contexts where originally the native language of a country was used are gradually taken over by the English language
minority language speakers insist on their own languages for emotional binding to their own culture

English gone wrong
English gone wrong
English gone wrong
English gone wrong
English gone wrong
English gone wrong
http://www.bpb.de/nachschlagen/zahlen-und-fakten/globalisierung/52515/weltsprache (30.6.2010)
Crystal, David English as a Global Language, 2nd Edition; Cambridge University Press, GB 1997, 2003
Dröschel, Yvonne Lingua Franca English: The Role of Simplifacation and Transfer; Peter Lang AG, Bern 2009
Haarmann, Hermann Weltgeschichte der Sprachen – Von der Frühzeit des Menschen bis zur Gegenwart; Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2006
Janson, Tore Eine kurze Geschichte der Sprachen; Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg/Berlin 2003mbridge University Press, GB 2007
Kachru, Braj B. (editor) The Other Tongue – English across Cultures 2nd Edition; the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, USA 1982, 1992
Schneider, Edgar W. Postcolonial English – Varieties around the World; Cambridge University Press, GB 2007
- Meierkord, C. 2009. “Lingua franca communication in multiethnic contexts.” In: Spencer-Oatey, H. & Kotthoff, H. (eds) Handbook of intercultural communication. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 199 - 218.
House, Juliane. 2003. “English as a lingua franca: a threat to multilingualism?” In: Journal of Sociolingusitics 7/4, 2003, 556-578. http://uk-online.uni-koeln.de/remarks/d5134/rm2169656.pdf
- Phillipson, Robert.2008. “Lingua franca or lingua frankensteinia? English in European integration and globalization.” In: World Englishes 27/2, 250-284.
- Jenkins, Jennifer. 2003. World Englishes: A resource book for students. Abingdon: Routledge
- Melchers, Gunnel & Philip Shaw. 2003. World Englishes. London: Arnold, a member of the Hodder Headline Group.
- Rubdy, Rani & Mario Saraceni (eds). 2006. English in the World. London: Continuum.
- Joseph, Michael & Ester Ramani. 2006 “English in the World does not mean English Everywhere: The Case for Multilingualism in the ELT/ESL profession.” In: Rubdy, Rani & Mario Saraceni (eds). 2006. 186-199
- Fraser Gupta. Anthea. 2006 . “Standard English in the World”. In: Rubdy, Rani & Mario Saraceni (eds). 2006. 95-109
- “Europeans and their languages.” 2006. Nov 16, 2013 <http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_sum_en.pdf>
- Hartmut Haberland. Domains and domain loss. 2005. In: The Consequences of – Mobility 2006. Nov 16, 2013 http://rudar.ruc.dk/bitstream/1800/8701/1/Haberland.pdf

"...the very spread of ELF may stimulate members of minority languages to insist on their own local language for emotional binding to their own culture,
history and tradition, and there is, indeed, a strong countercurrent to the spread of ELF in that local varieties and cultural practices are often strengthened. One example is the revival of german language folk music, songs in local dialects such as Bavarian to counteract pop music in english only."
Do you think that
English is a threat
to multilingualism?
Do you think that you profit from the English language?
Full transcript