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Industry & Urban Growth - Part I

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by

Matt Jackson

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of Industry & Urban Growth - Part I

Industry & Urban Growth
1865-1915 Electric power plant (1882) > electric power for factories
Electrical transformers (1885) > sending electrical power cheaply and long distances
Ford’s assembly line (1913)
1. faster production of factory products
2. lower production costs
(Ford’s Model T) > lower consumer prices Business Innovations Transatlantic cable (1866) Cyrus Field’s Transatlantic
Telegraph cable (1866) Thomas Edison’s Electric Power
Plant (New York City, 1882) Henry Ford’s Moving
Assembly Line (1913) Ford’s Moving Assembly Line (1913) Stephen Field’s
Electric Streetcar (1874) Jan Matzeliger’s
Shoe-Making Machine (1883) Duryea’s Gasoline
Car (1893) Sholes’s Typewriter (1868) Edison’s Incandescent
Light Bulb (1879) Morse Telegraph (1844) Standard Oil Company
Stock Certificate Titusville (Pennsylvania)
Oil Well 1859 Oil Well and Barrels Bessemer Converter Bringing raw materials (coal, iron ore, lumber, etc.) to factories in cities
Bringing factory products (farm machinery, etc.) to markets
Bringing farmers’, miners’, and ranchers’ goods to markets
Bringing settlers to West (cheaply, quickly, safely)
Improvements
1. Westinghouse air brake
2. Janney car couplers
3. Swift refrigerated railroad cars
4. Pullman sleeping car Late 19th Century Railroads (cont'd) 19th Century Railroad 19th Century Barrow Steel Rail Cornelius Vanderbilt Statue (NYC) Transcontinental Railroads 1880s Westinghouse brake Pullman car interior Reducing time for household chores
Faster and longer-distance communications
Faster and cheaper production of factory goods
Faster, more comfortable, cheaper, long-distance travel
Nore productive and efficient offices Benefits of Post-Civil War Inventions Samuel Morse: telegraph (1844)
Transatlantic telegraph cable (1866)
Typewriter (1868)
Telephone (1876)
Phonograph (1877)
Benefits: faster, cheaper, broader communications between businesses and individuals Communications Inventions Wright Brothers’
First Airplane flight (1903) Gustavus Swift’s
Refrigerated Railcar (1880’s)
Interior First Telephone (1876) Edison’s Kinetoscope (1893) Thomas Edison’s
Phonograph (1877) Standard Oil Monopoly
Political Cartoon John D. Rockefeller Old Oil Well Kerosene Lamps Iron Ore Hill Steel Rail and Girder Bessemer Converter Consolidation
Railroad barons (Cornelius Vanderbilt, James Hill)
Nation’s largest industry and biggest employer
Networks > faster, cheaper transportation
Stimulating related industries (coal, steel, lumber, construction)
1890’s: five transcontinental lines
1880’s: standard gauge between rails (4 feet, 8.5 inches)
1860’s: 30,000 miles of track; 1890’s: 193,000 miles of track
Competition for customers
1. rebates (secret discounts to big customers)
2. pools (companies dividing business in region) Late 19th Century Railroads Railroad Stock Certificate Steel Rails and Wooden Ties Pullman car Carnegie Steel Edison Swift Refrigerated Car Granville T. Woods
Full transcript