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Perspective overview overview revision lesson 5
Transcript of Perspective overview overview revision lesson 5
Perspectives & Theories
Views society as a 'system' that is made up of different parts known as institutions. Each of the institutions work independently but collectively work together for the greater good of society. Each part insures that society functions efficiently in a way that will benefit everyone.
Functionalists see socialisation as an important process in forming identity. When members of society are committed to the same norms and values they will share similar identities. Shared values and norms within a society create unity and cooperation.
Functionalists view culture as a way of ensuring unity and cooperation (Social cohesion). Norms and values are taught and reinforced through all of the institutions to ensure that we are all striving for the same goal: A smoothly functioning society (Social solidarity)
Views society in terms of class divisions, conflict and struggle. People who have power, control and ownership (Bourgeoisie), and those who have power and control exerted upon them (Proletariat). The ruling class own the means of production, whereas the working class are exploited as part of the work force to ensure that the wealthy get wealthier.
Marxists view socialisation as a way of instilling the norms, values of the dominant, ruling class (Ideology). We learn to accept our social situation and to not challenge the authority of the ruling class. We learn discipline and to accept the system of capitalism
Our identity is determined by our social class status and consumerism. The things that we take part in and buy shape our identity. Different classes have different pass times.
Culture is determined by class status. Certain cultural practices and activities are unique to specific class groups.
Society is viewed in terms of small scale interactions and relationships between individuals and groups in society. Society is constructed through 'symbols', verbal and non-verbal communications which are interpreted in order to discover meaning and to understand the world around us.
Identity is formed through interpreting messages that we get from other people. We are able to manage our identity in accordance to how we interpret these messages. We also base our identity on how others see you and how people judge our behaviour
The socialisation process provides us with the skills needed to interpret the messages we receive from others. These skills are based on the norms and values of society. We learn how to interpret the messages we receive from others and what they mean
Culture provides us with the skills needed to interact with others and the basis of knowledge we need to interpret the messages we are constantly receiving from others.
View society in terms of inequality between men and women. Feminists identify that we live in a patriarchal society; men have power, opportunity and authority over women.
Patriarchal values are instilled through the socialisation process. Gender roles ensure that males and females assume their expected positions in society.
Our identity is constructed in accordance to the gender roles in which we conform to. Female identity is constructed for the pleasure and entertainment of men.
Norms, values benefit men and are to the detriment of women. Norms and values are to highlight the superiority of men over women. This is reinforced through socialisation
Our identity is formed as part of a 'collective consciousness'; we all have similar norms and values which bonds us together (Social cohesion) and we all collectively agree that these norms and values are for the benefit of all (Value consensus).
Theories of Identity
The looking glass self
We can only identify with a sense of self when we put ourselves in other people's shoes. We imagine how others see us (me) and internalise this to form our idenity (I)
We base our identity on the responses and messages we receive from others about our appearance and behaviour.
The world is a stage and we are all social actors. We have a front stage (public) identity and a back stage (Private) identity. Our act changes depending on the social situation and we use 'props' in help execute our performances.
People that fall outside of socially accepted behaviour and attitudes are labelled deviant by society. These people, live up to their label (Self-fulfilling Prophesy) and act out in accordance to their social ascribed status. This affects identity as they follow a 'deviant career' path and associate with others of the same label.
Marxists view the education system as a way reinforcing ruling class ideology through the hidden curriculum. Children are subtly taught norms and values that relate to being a 'good worker' such as obedience and compliance which will directly benefit the ruling class.
Marxists see that the purpose of education is to condition children into becoming the next generation of the work force. Emphasis is on subjects such as Maths and English and less on creative subjects.
Functionalists view the education system as an institution that encourages people to realise their full potential. This is achieved by the use of a curriculum that develops and nurtures individual skills and attributes, and guides students into a career path that is best suited to their talents.
For example: Someone who displays a natural talent at sports will be encouraged to succeed and 'pushed' more in PE lessons.
This is to ensure that the best people fulfill the right social roles in society which in turn will enable society to run smoothly (Social stability). The government will support this idea through funding (Human capital)
The Hidden curriculum promotes social cohesion by teaching such as charity, volunteering and tolerance through subjects such as Citizenship, SMSC, PSHE and RE.
Schools are based around the idea that rewards are given to people based on their achievements and abilities (Meritocracy)
According to Interactionists, the purpose of the education system is to reinforce the norms and values of society to help us to understand the world around us. Through the hidden curriculum we learn how to manage relationships with others. We learn to understand the meaning behind non-verbal communication, symbols, gestures, body language and facial expressions. We learn how to effectively communicate with others.
Many different positive relationships are encouraged within education through PTA, newsletters, parents evening.
Negative relationships occur when teachers make judgements or assumptions about students based on their behavior. This is known as labelling theory. Students learn behaviour through a system of rewards and punishments.
Feminists argue that there are fundamental differences between the sexes in schools. Whilst girls out perform boys in every aspect of education, and coupled with the fact that more girls than boys going on to higher education there is still a discrepancy in regards to men occupying the higher position jobs in society.
Feminists also argue that education reinforces societal gender roles. More girls than boys tend to take option subjects such as catering, hair and beauty and health and social care, with more boys taking Technology and computer based subjects and PE.
Feminists also state that there are other issues that contribute to the 'gender gap' in education such as class differences and labelling.