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Bridges and Towers

A Bunch of Paragraphs on Various Bridges and Towers
by

Mason Foster

on 16 May 2011

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Transcript of Bridges and Towers

Bridges Part 1 Log Rope Stone Arch steel Suspension Cantilever Truss A log bridge is a bridge that uses logs that fall naturally or are intentionally chopped down or placed across streams. The first manmade bridges with significant span were probably intentionally chopped trees A simple rope bridge is made mostly of rope. It can even be as simple as a few ropes crossing a river, enabling who ever is crossing to be supported and not be swept away. The Stone Arch Bridge was developed by the Romans and was a great technological advancement. The stability of this arch depends on the compression between its wedge shaped stones. This results in horizontal outward forces at the curving point of the arch, which must be supported by the foundation on the sides of the arch. For years, engineers used a technique called centering, in which a wooden form supported both spans until they locked together at the top. The First Steel Bridge was built in Telford in 1779 by Abraham Darby III and was the first large structure in history to be constructed from iron. It revolutionized the way structures were built enabling engineers to build even larger structures and buildings. Builders in Asia, Africa and South America first wove ropes of vegetation to traverse ancient geological gaps, creating the first suspended bridges in pre-history Briges Part 2 Heinrich Gerber was one of the engineers to obtain a patent for a hinged girder (1866) and is recognized as the first to build one. The Hassfurt Bridge over the Main river in Germany with a central span of 124 feet was completed in 1867 and is recognized as the first modern cantilever bridge. Menai Strait Bridge --

* Built: 1818 - 1826

* Location: Near Bangor, Gwynned, Wales, United Kingdom

* Crosses: Menai Straits

* Structural Type: Chain suspension bridge

* Function / usage: Road bridge

* Next to: Britannia Bridge (1850)

* Builder: William Hazledine

* Designer: Thomas Telford

* Construction: Dorman, Long and Co. Ltd.

* deck: wrought iron

* piers: masonry

* chains: wrought iron

* Dimensions:

main span 177 m
total length 521 m
tower height 46.6 m
clearance 30 m


* Chronology:
1940:
The main suspended deck structure is replaced by an identical one made of steel.


Notes & Comments
The bridge deck suffered damage in 1839 in a strong gale. The deck was eventually replaced in 1893 using steel. The entire structure was rehabilitated in 1940 Eads Bridge --
Illinois and Saint Louis Bridge; Saint Louis Bridge

* Built: 1867 - 1874

* Status: in use

* Location: Saint Louis, Missouri, USA

* Crosses: Mississippi River

* Structural Type: Arch bridge
fixed


* Function / usage: Railroad (railway) bridge Road bridge

*James Buchanan Eads

* Assistant engineer: Louis F.G. Bouscaren

* Keystone Bridge Company

* Construction materials used:
steel arches

* Dimensions

total length: 1,964m
length of center spans: 158.5m
clearance: 16.8m Tatara Bridge --

* Completed in: 1999
* Status: in use
* Location: Between Ikuchi, Hiroshima, Japan and Ohmishima, Ehime, Japan

* Structural Type: Cable-stayed bridge multicable, fan arrangement, hollow box

* Function / usage: Motorway bridge / freeway bridge

* Part of: Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project

* Honshu Shikoku Bridge Authority

* Steel construction: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.

* Construction materials used:

cables: steel
pylons: reinforced concrete

* Dimensions

main span: 890 m
total length: 1,480 m
span lengths: 270.0 m - 890.0 m - 320.0 m
clearance: 26.0 m
deck: deck width 30.6 m
pylons: pylon height 220.0 m
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