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Heavy Hitters of Art History

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megan hoffman

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Heavy Hitters of Art History

Heavy Hitters of Art History
A Survey of World art history
Cave paintings of Altamira, Spain and Lascaux, France 30,000- 10,000 B.C.

Pharaoh Khafre, c. 2600 B.C.
Cairo, Egypt
vase with Ajax and Achilles playing Morra c. 540 B.C.
Queen Nerfertit c. 1360 B.C.
Nekht and his wife, Wall painting. c. 1425 B.C.
Roman Copy of the Discobolus (disk thrower) c.450
Nike fastening her sandal c.410 B.C.
Roman Amphitheater 190's A.D.
The Ara Pacis Augustae: the first family. Frieze from the altar of peace 1st century B.C.
Mohenjo- Daro India c. 2500 B.C.
The Great Stuppa. India c. 150-50 B.C.
Asenajit Visits the budda c. 2nd B.C.
Buddha from northern India 5th century
Shiva Nataraja
Ritual Lobed Tripod Cauldron 11th century B.C.
Standing Buddha northern Wei Dynasty A.D. 477
Bowl with mold stamped lotus design. Sugn Dynasty A.D. 1127-1179
Pair of vases 1426-35. Ming Dynasty.
Kuo Hsi. Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys. Date unknown
The burning of the sanjo palace. 13th century A.D.
Katsushika Hokusai. The Great wave of Kanagawa
Taos Pueblo Adobe dwelling. Taos, New Mexico c. 1300
Water jugs. Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico. 1910
Saddle Blanket. Navajo weaving. C. 1890
George Washakei. Elkhide painted with design of sun dance ceremony. Wyoming. late 1800's
The great serpent mound c. 1000 B.C.- A.D. 300
Olmec. Colossal Head 1200 B.C.- A.D. 500 Veracruz Mexico
Mayan. Great plaza of Tikal. Guatemala A.D. 150-700
Royal Woman. Relief carving. A.D. 650-750. Tobasco, Mexico
Mayan
Aztec. the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan.
Inca. Quipu. 13-15th century
The Thing about African art is...
African art isn't actual art, and Traditionally most african languages do not have a word for art.
Aztec. Painting of the gods Tezcalipoca and Quetzalcoatl
Inca. Machu Picchu. c.1500
The Inca used knotted strings to keep records and calculations. They had no written language, yet managed to control their land and keep it organized and managed.
This city was built to protect the Incas from tribes to the east. It is perched on a ridge between two mountains making it hard to over throw
cave paintings, like the ones found in northern Spain and southern France date back to 10,000 B.C. These are the first known artist. Once believed to be all men, but now research is showing that women were the first artist.
Experts say that, the pharaohs face reads he is aware of but not concerned with Mortal problems. These statues are a symbol of eternal strength and power, of a God King.
These statues are made and placed in tombs so that the spirits of the God Kings could return to earth inside the statues. The people would bring these types of statues offerings.(Show gridded drawing system)
The pharaoh's throne is inscribed with symbols proclaiming him the king of Upper and Lower Egypt.
His right hand forms a fist, which must have once gripped some symbol of his high office
A falcon which represents Horus the god of the sky was placed behind khafre's head to remind viewers of the pharaoh's divinity. Khafre was considered to be the descendent of Re, the sun god.
Paintings like these were found in the tombs of the wealthy. They were designed to tell a story about the deceased. Notice the contorted bodies. See the way the compositions are arranged in a grid. (Grid system)
Married to Pharaoh Akhenaton, the couple refused previous religious practices, and changed the face of art during their reign. The art style became more naturalistic, and scenes often depicted the couple with their children in the garden.
Two sites were found The Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in 1856, These were two major cities that were connected by a road and were believed to have been part of an organized kingdom with a central government. (grid structure) (Compare to pyramids)
Greeks used functional vessels to display art. Art was a practice of every day routines. Artists were highly valued as intellects with precious skill.
This image depicts the heroes Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game. Stories are told this way in a series of vases that people would rotate use.
Statues were made for many reasons. Reasons like, to preserve the acts of a hero, or he pay tribute to a God.Sculpters were treasured laborers that could carve away and create mans form, mimicking the creation of man. The more realist the art work was, the more valuable it became. (Story about artist competition)
Murals such as this, were believed only painted in the wealthy Romans houses.Until the uncovering of Pompeii, and they found the murals in common houses painted by lesser artists. They depicted window scenes and out door scenes to liven up the rooms, there were built inside buildings that could not support windows, so the only light came through doors and by candle light
Bedroom from the villa of P. Fannius Synistor. Pompeian, Boscoreale. 1st century
Similarities between roman and greek statues, life like features. realism
Round arch:
a wall or another arch is needed to counter the outward force of the arch.

Keystone:
the top of the stone of the arch holds other stones in place.

Buildings like this were made for entertainment, religious practices, and transportation.
A stuppa is a small burial shrine over the grave site that holds the relics of Buddha. These Stuppas are built so you can continuously walk around the dome until one reaches peace or nirvana.This type of meditation symbolizes the path of life that circles the world.
The building is carved into for Buddhist worshipers, the carvings are symbols and teachings of Buddha but the figure never once appears.
Mayans are the only know Pre-Colombian civilization to develop a written language.
The developed the stair step pyramid, each pyramid was dedicated to a deity. Mayan culture has helped understand the development of ancient civilizations. They believed that people were created by the gods with maze,water and the blood of the gods. To repay the gods for their debt, they have blood sacrifices. The ritual required blood from the ruler, his wife, and a victim. These buildings were painted.
Compare this relief sculpture with the Egyptian one
The lord of dance, The god Shiva performs a dance that destroys the universe to make preparations for Brahma to start creation.
Ritual uses, held offering for ancestors

Compare this Buddha to the last one
Sculpture and reliefs of Buddhism reached it's peak in A.D. 320-600. They represented great power and inner peace. (physical characteristics)
The arms represent the graceful movements of the God, and they serve a purpose to hold many symbolic objects.

The hand points to his foot, which symbolizes escape from ignorance, that is represented by the figure he crushes under his left foot.
The Olmec were Mexicos greatest civilizations, and carved these heads out of volcanic rock. The faces are not welcoming.
What do they represent?

PELOTA
From the Codex, an accordion style book, filled with picture writing.
Conquered by Spaniards in 1532 due to civil war
Yoruba sculpture
ART is life
Asante Kingdom
Kente cloth
Early christian art symbols
Basilica
Mosaic
Islamic Art
Islamic architecture
Manuscript illumination
Gothic art
Stain Glass Window
Italian Frescoes
Italian Renaissance
Leonardo Da Vinci
Michelangelo
Raphael
spanish painters
Rococo Art
Goya The third of may
Romanticism and Realism
Claude Monet
Edgar Degas
Post impressionist
American Art
Henry Tanner
Fauvism
German Expressionism
Wassily Kandinsky
Cubism
Frida Kahlo
American art schools and the Armory show of 1913
Surrealism Dada and fantasy
Grant wood American Gothic
Georgia O'Keeffe
Abstract expressionism
POP ART
Op Art
Photo Realism
Sculpture and Henry Moore
Louise Nevelson
Alexander Calder
Frank Lloyd Wright
By 1100 A.D. the Yoruba people learned to sculpt life life statues of their kings and queens. They did this by using the LOST-WAX PROCESS to create these sculpture heads.
Yoruba Masquerade
Masquerade means a full costume including a face covering, pr mask.
Yorubas costume is called a EGUNGUN and is made of mostly cloth, and beads. EGUNGUN ensembles are work to honor ancestors,
they are designed
to symbolize the
spirit world, and
the dances performed symbolize the past,
presen, and future,
or the birth, life, departure, and return. These dances are to influence peoples way of thinking, to take action to improve world conditions.
The Asante kingdom formed around the late 18th century in city-states in central and coastal Ghana. They produced many gold artifacts like jewelry. Gold represented wealth and the Asante people used to to also represent rank by engraving different symbols into the gold. Only the king allowed commission of these works of art.
The Asante people also created the kente cloth, a cloth that is brightly colored and patterned fabric that became the Royal cloth.These cloths became a trade mark, and were traded through african kings, queens, and royals.
Carved Figures
wood sculptures appear throughout Africa but the most common is the human figure. Wood carving are made with a tool called ADZE- an ax like tool with an arched blade at right angles to the handle. The wood carvings of Africa reflects a wide variet of forms and functions, that include ancestors and cultural heroes, guardian figures and spirit spouse figures
Most figures share these traits in common:
1. Proportions that reflect cultural preferences rather than natural proportions
2. frontal symmetric poses
3. disproportionately large heads signifying the importance of the head as the center of reason and wisdom
4. little or no suggestion of movement.
Nails in figures like this show the rituals that accompany this figure
When Christianity first came out it was illegal and had to be practiced in secret, and with many symbols to represent the hidden faith. They dug CATACOMBS or underground passageways to hold religious services and bury their dead.
The circle represents heaven
The shepherd represents Jesus
The sheep represent faithful followers, the christians believed that Christ would lay down his life for his followers
The sheep on his shoulders represent the people who need extra help on the road to salvation
the arms of the cross end in half-circles in which the story of Jonah and the whale is told this story illustrates gods power to protect the faithful form danger
standing figures with their hands raised in prayer represent all the members of the church pleading for gods assistance and mercy.
As Christianity became more popular in the roman empire they were allowed to practice their faith in the open. This started a new beginning in christian art. Basilica or churches were constructed. Throughout history more developments were made for architecture then ever before thanks to religious buildings. From 2nd story floors, to vault arched ceilings to massive stained glass windows
A mosaic is a decoration made with small pieces of glass and stone set in cement. Mosaics covered churches and were used to show symbols that represented stories told in the religious texts
on the other side of the world Islam was developing their own art styles. One of the most impressive works of art is the Koran. Of course t
he Koran is a religious book that functions to teach the Islamic religion, however the book is also a work of art.
Each book was written by masters, and each page delicately designed. You will see that
in Islamic art there are no figures, or icons. Just the beautiful line design and texts.

The Mosques became very import in islamic culture. Muslims pray 5 times a day, and needed a place to pray. The mosques are often huge buildings filled with arch ways and vaulted ceilings.
Christians were also creating beautiful books. A few educated monks dedicated their lives to to creating these manuscripts and the painting inside them.
Gothic refers to a time period between mid 12th century to end of the 15th century. During this time the style. During this time there were drastic changes in cathedral design that has influenced architecture and culture. One major accomplishment is flying buttresses which are just a support beam or brace that counteracts the outward thrust of an arch or vault.
The other great accomplishment is stain glass windows. these windows allowed large amounts of light into the church without the use of fire. The reduction of fire inside the churches meant that there were fewer fires. burning churches could burn down whole cities. The paintings on the glass told stories from the bible that the peasants couldn't read about.
A fresco is a painting that was applied to a wall with a fresh layer of plaster. These paintings are found on the sides of churches and buildings and the paintings told stories to inform people.
The italian renaissance was during the 15th century and considered the rebirth of intelligence after the dark ages. Out of the italian renaissance we get some of the most amazing artists, and discovery's that changed art. You have linear perspective that showed depth and volume on a surface, you have aerial perspective that uses hue, value, and intensity to show distance and a strive to paint as realistic as possible.
Leonardo's name is more then his name. Da vinci means of Vinci. Vinci is the town Leonardo was from. Leonardo was a true genius mixing math and science into art to further perfect the craft. Leonardo painted many controversial paintings, as well as designed many inventions.
Michelangelo was an amazing artist, who sculpted as well as painted. He was responsible for the ceiling of the Sistine chapel, where only came down to sleep, all his food was sent up to him. When sculpting he said he was freeing the figures from the stone.
Raphaels style changed how people used color in their paintings. Raphael used soft, bright colors that showed soft forms and an implication of light.
He was commissioned to paint the walls of the Vatican for the pope.
The renaissance was happening all over Europe and in Spain you have Diego Velazquez. Diego was a nobleman, and took a court position as a painter. Here he created amazing works such as Las Meninas. Where the artist painted whole scenes including himself in the work.
Rococo art placed emphasis on the carefree life of the aristocracy rather than on grand heroes or pious martyrs. As the aristocracy grew in power it grew the arts and commissioned more work than the pope. which is what changed the subjects in art works
Goya was the official court painter for king Charles IV , until he got very sick and witness the brutality of war. He painted the execution of spanish patriots by the french after a fight broke out between spanish civilians and french soldiers. As he grew older he became more bitter and disillusioned. He stopped painting figures and started painting dreams and visions.
Romanticism is a style that is dramatic and exotic subjects perceived with strong feelings, often of god like scenes. Then you have the realists that rejected romanticism, and wanted paintings to resemble the world around them.
You already know, refer to your old notes
Refer to your previous notes
Refer to other notes
Refer to your previous notes
He revolutionized architecture and made people understand it as an art form. His buildings were fully designed as an art work, and incorporated the land around it.
Alexander was the first artist to use free standing works of art called mobiles. The works used the wind to change shape and form that keeps the sculptures interesting.
Louise used assemblage to create her works of art. Her works use different forms to create interesting space to keep the viewers eye intrigued.
Henry explored the human figure though his sculpture. He had a team of workers help him create his sculpture later on in his life. His figures speak to human nature, as the abstract forms intertwine.
Chuck close is one of the most famous photo realist. Photorealism is using photography to create a drawing or painting so life like, that you believe that it is a photograph at first
Op art was made to create optical illusions as art works.
Refer to previous notes
Georgia O'Keeffe was one of Americas most influential artist, a feminist, and married to famous photographer Alfred Stieglitz. She created works of flowers, she abstracted them by zooming close into the flower. These painting are often compared to the female anatomy.
Grant Wood showed that americans can do fine art, that is complex, and realistic. He works contain may hidden messages and symbolize to express life as an american during this time period.
Was one of the first artist to reject representational art. He spent many years studying many styles of avaunt-guard art. His unique style then invented non-objective art.
Monet invented impressionism, a style of painting that left the impression of the landscape on the canvas. Monet achieved this style by using dots and dabs of colors of paint that blended together from a distance. The impressionist believed in brief moments, snapshots.
Edgar Degas was another artist interested in snap shots. He loved candid shots. Candid=off guards. He loved the way people loved in these brief moments with certain items in focus and everything else blurry.
He observed line, form and movement of the human body that led him to capture the split-second movement of a dancer. Ballerinas became his preferred subject.
Post impressionist painters are similar to impressionist painters but they concerned themselves with form and structure more. Your most famous artists were Paul Cezanne Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin. These artist later inspired Fauvism.
Van Gogh
Cezanne
Gauguin
At the turn of the 19th century art in America starts to become a thing. There were more art schools starting and artist studying in America. As the wealthy class grew they started a practice of philanthropy or an active effort to promote human welfare and interest in education grew. And soon there was education for all, and children were forced into going to school, yay public education!
Henry Tanner is one of the most important african american artist of the late 19th early 20th century. He went to Pennsylvania academy of the fine arts, and then stayed in America where he did genre painting.
It was the First large exhibit of modern art in America. The show presented modern art to americans, who had never before seen works by Cezanne, can Gogh, Matisse, and Picasso. This drastically changed art in America and New york replaced Paris as the art capital of the world.
Was one of many artist who used their works to protest against social injustices in Mexico. She was a famous artist at a time when women rarely entered the art field. Her paintings were her way of expressing her feelings, and a lifetime of struggle.
Fauvism opened the doors for expressionism to happen. This is a movement that resulted in artworks that communicated strong emotion feelings. By using the elements and principles in certain way to elude to stronger feelings than a realist image.
Germans welcomed this kind of art and many artists came out of this movement.
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