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Transcript of Terrorism
Jewish group, Sicarii attempted to oust Roman rulers from Judea
The English word "assassin" comes from the secretive Islamic sect, Hashhashin
assassinated political leaders in Iraq and Syria from the 11th-13th centuries
the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. (according to the FBI)
5 types: Civil disorder, non-political, quasi, limited political, and state
Five Types of Terrorism
Limited Political Terrorism:
: violent protests against political parties
Intended to send a message to the government
Ex: The Weathermen rioted and set off bombs to protest the Vietnam War
Intended to be non-violent but slowly becomes violent
: Attack by a group for another purpose, often for religious reasons.
Religious based terrorism
Ex: 9/11 an extremist group attacked the United States of America because of ideological discrepancies (no political motivation)
: Similar methods to terrorism, but with different motives/goals
Often involves an armed criminal trying to get away from law enforcement
Ex: hostage situations
Shared result = terrorized victim
Limited political terrorism:
general one-time plots with ideological/political motives
not meant to over throw government
Ex: anti-abortion violence (bombing, arson, murder/attempted murder)
: any violent action initiated by a government to achieve political goals
Conflicts between countries
Ex: North Korean attacks on South Korea (bombing of Yeonpyeong Island and sinking of warship)
History of Terrorism
Origins of Modern Terrorism
Laws on Terrorism
Terrorism after 9/11
Until 2001, the government did not prioritize building a watch list system for people's eligibility to board planes
On 9/11, the government’s list of people prevented from flying included just 16 names.
Today, the no fly list has swelled to tens of thousands of “known or suspected terrorists”
The list subjects people to extra questioning at airports and border crossings.
The government has created other databases
The largest is the Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment (TIDE)
gathers terrorism information from sensitive military and intelligence sources around the world
Terrorist Screening Database (TSDB)
"the watch list"
1793: Maximilien Robespierre ushers in Reign of Terror after French Revolution
word "terrorism" comes from Reign of Terror
Robespierre's belief that violence will bring about a better system laid the foundations for modern terrorism
guerrilla tactics by independent parties rise in the 1950s
often inspired by ethnic nationalism, anti-colonialism, and new ideologies
Ex: Irish Republican Army originally fought to become independent from Great Britain
became prominent in the 1960s when hijacking became a popular tactic
1970s era established the contemporary sense of terrorism as theatrical, symbolic acts of violence by groups with political grievances
after 1972 Munich Olympics, the terms "counterterrorism" and "international terrorism" officially entered U.S. politics
1972 "Munich Massacre"
Any terrorist attack that occurs within the territorial jurisdiction of a country (U.S.)
Includes both "homegrown" incidents and terror from abroad
i.e. Unabomber, Oklahoma City Bombing, 9/11, Anthrax Attacks, Fort Hood Shooting, Boston Bombing
Levels Of Terrorism
Terrorism is now considered a "modern phenomenon"
effectiveness depends on mass media to spread an aura of terror among the people
Most groups justify violence with a deep belief in the necessity of their cause
Religiously motivated terrorism is considered the biggest threat today
ISIS, Al-Qaeda "The Base", Hamas, Hezbollah
Rise of Extremist Terrorism
1968-1979 = dawn of international terrorism
creation of Israel sparked anti-Western movements in the Arab and Islamic world
Radical nationalist Palestinians used modern communication and transportation to internationalize their struggle
transnational network served as model to other ethnic and religious movements
Afghanistan became a terrorist training ground for Shiite Islamists after the Soviet invasion in 1979 (Al-Qaeda, Taliban, etc.)
Religious extremists are becoming more and more willing to strike outside of their immediate surroundings to expand their influence
Ex: ISIS reaches out to Westerners
the 9/11 attacks brought the globalization of terrorism to America's center stage for the first time
Islamist terrorist attacks between Sep. 11, 2001 and May 2013
Keep in Mind...
Violent Islamist terrorists represent a
view, and often contradict and misrepresent the true, peaceful nature of Islam
Religious extremists are not "orthodox believers turned violent, but rather violent extremists who manipulate religious concepts for their own purposes."
Ex: Muhammad Atta, architect of 9/11 attacks
September 11th, 2001
largest terrorist attack in history
19 militants associated with al Qaeda hijacked planes and carried out suicide attacks against the U.S.
2 planes were crashed into the WTC in New York, 1 into the Pentagon, and 1 into a field in Pennsylvania
more than 3000 people were killed, including 400+ police officers and firefighters
extensive death and destruction triggered major U.S. initiatives to combat terrorism