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Development in floating offshore wind turbines
Transcript of Development in floating offshore wind turbines
Development in floating offshore wind turbines
Daniel Morcillo Armas
Enrique Pascual San José
José Adrián Fernández Arjona
The floating turbine is one of the most successful discoveries in the last decade for the generation of alternative energy pollution for the near future.
Is better locate a turbine in the sea because the wind is typically more consistent and stronger over the sea, due to the absence of topographic features that disrupt wind flow
Current situation in Europe
Renewable Energy SystemS
A total of 2,080 wind turbines are now installed and connected to the electricity grid in 69 offshore wind farms in 11 countries across Europe.
Offshore wind represents 10% of the annual wind energy installations across Europe.
European Statics offshore installed capacity by countries
Accumulative and annual offshore wind installations (MW)
Most of the offshore projects are located in the North Sea. There are also a lot of them located in the Baltic Sea and in the Atlantic.
There are currently very few offshore wind farms in the Mediterranean, because the water is deep, and current commercial substructures are limited to maximum depths. This restricts the potential to exploit offshore wind development in the Mediterranean.
Suitable areas in Europe for offshore installation
In the next map we can distinguish different colours which mean:
Operational offshore wind farms
Planned offshore wind farms
First steps and future
The development phases of the EU offshore wind market in terms of water depth (m) and distance to shore (km) up to 2025
As the industry evolves, offshore wind farms are built further from the coast and in deeper waters to harness better energy resources out at sea.
The offshore wind sector is also developing larger turbines. For instance, the average size of the turbines grid connected during 2012 was 4 MW, up from 3.6 MW in 2011.
The European offshore wind industry is in its infancy and has huge potential for cost reductions and technological innovation
40 GW offshore wind capacity could be operational in European waters, representing 30% of the new installation annual wind market
150 GW of installed offshore wind capacity could be operational, representing 60% of the new annual installations, exceeding the onshore market
Offshore wind could reach 460 GW, producing 1,813 TWh and contributing to a European power supply met 50% by wind
Floating offshore designs are still in their infancy
Floating wind turbines have potential to unlock huge offshore wind energy resources in a cost effective manner, but many concepts must be proven before this industry can scale
Technical and financial challenges for floating wind, regulatory hurdles add another layer of complexity and uncertainty
Wind turbines are still years from mass deployment but they offer a lot of promise as the next step change in the wind energy industry
The concept of a floating wind turbine has existed since the early 1970s, but the industry only started researching it in the mid-1990s.
In 2008, Blue H technologies installed the first test floating wind turbine off the Italian coast (80kW).
A year later the Poseidon 37 project followed, a 37 meters wide wave energy plant and floating wind turbine foundation (Onsevig, Denmark)
In 2009, was installed the world’s first large scale grid connected floating wind turbine, Hywind, in Norway, with a 2.3 MW Siemens turbine.
The second large scale floating system was installed off the Portuguese coast in 2011. Equipped with a 2 MW Vestas wind turbine, the installation started producing energy in 2012.
There were also, in 2012, others experimental floating substructures (four in Europe, two in Japan and one in the US):
SeaTwirl, SWAY, Blue H and Poseidon in Europe,
Kabashima Island concept and WindLens in Japan
DeepCwind floating turbine in the US.
Advantages of the floating wind platforms
Floating platforms can generally be commissioned and assembled at the quayside, without the need for heavy-lift jackup or dynamic positioning (DP) vessels, further reducing the cost and risk of deployment activities
Some floating offshore wind designs also include a large platform where machinery as well as crew can remain available for O&M on site.
Types of platforms
There are mainly three types of floating wind platforms, adapted from the offshore oil and gas industry:
1- Ballast Stabilized or Spar Buoy
2- Tension Leg Platform or Mooring Line Stabilized Platforms
3- Buoyancy Stabilized Platform or Semi-submersible
Offshore wind foundations
Although European companies lead globally, they are in a technology race with the United States and Japan
European Wind Initiative focuses on developing wind energy technology, testing facilities, streamlining manufacturing processes and maintaining Europe’s global technology leadership. Cost effective deep offshore development is one of its technology objectives for the 2013-2015 period.
The United States:
More than half of theirs offshore wind resources are in waters deeper than 60m. In 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Offshore Wind Innovation and Demonstration Initiative to help advance commercial offshore wind development in the United States.
Japan has very good wind resources, but needs to develop deep offshore technology in order to exploit its domestic offshore wind energy resource, as more than 80% is located in deep waters. In March 2011, following the nuclear accident at Fukushima, the Japanese government decided to boost renewables and cut back on the use of nuclear power. Offshore wind is now on the political agenda and a feed-in tariff has been put in place.
Technical, infrastructure and economic challenges
Resource assessment, grid connection and wind farm operation are significant challenges for deep offshore projects. In addition, the foundation, communications and control systems may pose an extra technical challenge.
Modelling tools and numerical codes that simulate whole structure behaviour should be developed and validated to allow for an improved design.
Wind turbine designs should be optimised for use on floating substructures. If the total system - wind turbine and substructure - is effectively optimised, deep water technologies will become competitive.
Handling and installing mooring lines and anchors may be the main installation challenge. Hooking up mooring lines to the floating platform is one of the most difficult phases of the installation process. For O&M and logistics, the floating offshore turbine’s motion remains the main challenge, although the inspection of the mooring lines and anchor system could also involve much effort and cost.
Cost reduction is one of the main challenges for the industry and much work is being done to address it. Secure and stable regulatory framework, will help reduce costs. Innovation must also be geared towards reducing turbine, foundation and other component costs. Is therefore essential to ensure sufficient public R&D financing to enable the offshore vision to become reality.
Deep water substructures have mainly been based on floating platform designs
Blue H TLP
Hexicon Energy Design:
Siemens Hywind Floating Wind Turbine
The demo installed in Norway in 2009 was the world’s first full scale floating offshore wind turbine.
WindFloat offshore wind turbine
The mooring system employs conventional components such as chain and polyester lines to minimise cost and complexity. Through the use of pre-laid drag embedded anchors, site preparation and impact is minimised.
Blue H floating offshore platform
WINFLO floating offshore wind turbine
HiPRWind offshore wind turbine
Hexicon Energy Design
Blue H Engineering is now executing the design for the development of a generic 5 MW mode. This will offer a more stable floating foundation for commercially available 5-7 MW wind turbines.
Its floating foundation can be used with any commercial offshore wind turbines, without modification.
Oscillations are, by design, opposed to the excitation force generated by the waves.
The project includes a floating platform, based on a semi-submersible unit concept.
After two periods of successful tank tests (2010 & 2011), the Winflo life sized demonstrator was tested in sea conditions in 2013. After a one year testing period, it will be followed by a pilot farm built in 2016. The machine will be manufactured in pre-series and marketed from 2016 onwards.
The HiPRWind project is creating and testing novel, cost effective approaches to deepwater offshore wind energy developments. In order to gain real sea experience and data, a fully functional floating megawatt scale wind turbine will be deployed at an ocean test site off the coast of Spain and used as an experimentation platform. This installation is approximately 1:10 scale of the future commercial systems anticipated.
The Hexicon Energy Design is based on a floating platform which incorporates existing and verified offshore technologies and applications. The towers are installed directly onto the platform
IDEOL floating platform