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TH4001 Christian Theology: Past and Present

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David Clough

on 15 October 2009

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Transcript of TH4001 Christian Theology: Past and Present

TH4001 Christian Theology: Past and Present Mapping the Development of Christian Orthodoxy c. 100­451: NT Writings to Council of Chalcedon Key date: 312 - conversion of Constantine Key figures:
Justin Martyr (c. 100 - c. 165)
Irenaeus (c.130 - c. 200)
Origen (c. 185 - c. 254)
Tertullian (c. 160 - c. 225)
Athanasius (c. 296–373)
Augustine of Hippo (354-430) Key issues:
New Testament canon
church authority
relationship to wider culture (especially Greek philosophy)
creeds
Christology
Trinity
ecclesiology (esp. re. Donatists)
grace (Augustine vs. Pelagius) "Dark Ages" between fall of Rome 410 and 1000: survival mentality
+
rise of Islam
=
not much Christian theology c. 1050 ­ c. 1500 Middle Ages & Renaissance Key date: 1054, approximate dating of break between eastern and western churches, in part over 'filioque' clause Key figures:
Anselm of Canterbury (c. 1033–1109)
Peter Abelard (1079–1142)
Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225– c. 1274)
Duns Scotus (c. 1265–1308)
William of Ockham (c. 1285–1347)
Erasmus of Rotterdam (c. 1469–1536) Key issues:
systematic approach to biblical & patristic material
role of reason (esp. re. rediscovered Aristotle)
kingly vs. papal power Key terms:
Renaissance: literary and artistic renewal in 14th & 15th cent. Italy
Scholasticism: rational justification of belief and systematic approach to theology (e.g. Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham)
Humanism: concern for eloquent presentation of theology and reform of church on Scriptural & patristic basis (e. g. Erasmus)
c. 1500 - c. 1750
Reformation and Post-Reformation Four aspects:
1. Lutheranism
2. Reformed Church (Calvinism)
3. Radical Reformation (Anabaptists)
4. Counter-Reformation/Catholic Reformation Magisterial Reformation Protestant
Reformation Key figures:
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
John Calvin (1509–64)
Ulrich Zwingli (1484–1531) Reformation Key issues:
church reform
'sola Scriptura' emphasis on Bible
'sola fide' emphasis on God's grace Post-Reformation Protestant orthodoxy:
Theodore Beza (1519–1605) (Calvinist)
Johann Gerhard (1582–1637) (Lutheran) Roman Catholicism:
Council of Trent 1546–63 Puritanism:
William Perkins (1558–1602)
William Ames (1576–1633) Pietism:
von Zinzendorf (1700–60)
John Wesley (1703–91) This overview is based on a summary of McGrath, A. (2001). Christian Theology. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell. chs. 1-4. c. 1750 - present Enlightenment (1720-80) freeing of reason from bounds of tradition and authority led to questioning of miracle, revelation, original sin, problem of evil, status of Scripture & the significance of Christ

Romanticism (end 18th cent.): reaction against rationalism of Enlightenment and emphasis on feeling, e.g. Wordsworth.

Marxism: Karl Marx (1818–83) proclaimed materialistic view of the world and critiqued Christianity as an 'opiate of the people'

Liberal Protestantism: sought to bridge gap between faith and modern knowledge, e.g. Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834) and Paul Tillich (1886–1965)

Modernism: Roman Catholic critique of tradition, e.g. Alfred Loisy (1857–1940)and George Tyrrell (1861–1909)

Neo-orthodoxy: reaction to perceived failure of Liberal Protestant project focussed in the work of Karl Barth (1886–1968)

Roman Catholicism: theological renewal in period before Second Vatican Council in 1962–5.

Eastern Orthodoxy: renewal and rediscovery of key insights by western church.

Feminism: critique of Christian tradition as male-dominated and exclusive of women and their experience, e.g. in authors such as Mary Daly, Daphne Hampson and Rosemary Radford Ruether.

Postmodernism: philosophical destabilization of Enlightenment project establishing authoritative place of reason and the human subject, through deconstruction of concepts, e.g. de Saussure, Derrida, Foucault and Baudrillard.

Liberation theology: originating in Latin America and insisting on the theological priority of the perspective of the poor, e.g. Gustavo Gutierrez and Leonardo Boff.

Black theology: emphasis on the need to reinvisage theology based on experience of black people, e.g. James Cone.

Evangelicalism: emphasis on authority of Scripture, uniqueness of Christ, need for personal conversion & urgency of evangelism.

Pentecostal & charismatic movements: growing denominations emphasizing power of the Holy Spirit.
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