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Transcript of Emergency Management
Unforeseeable disasters challenge us from time to time.
The ability to respond could be the difference between life or death.
just as important as the emergency services
response could affect a communities long term stability
The Need for Emergency Management
interdependency of homes, resources, wealth generation, transportation routes & more
people are at the centre - we are the reason that communities exist
Communities are targets waiting for a disaster to happen'
exposed to unpredictable forces
affected by human activity
suffer from careless and greedy actions of humans
Communities need to be protected
mechanisms required to reduce incident occurrence & effect of events
plans to address the effects of these events and the immediate need of residents
History of Emergency Management
Human concern with safety is not new
community leaders had initial responsibility
handed to those working in the industry
eventually a profession in its own right
Safety in numbers
Resources, trade and safety all influence our decision to live in communities.
primitive humans realised that their best chance for survival was to work together
communities with the strongest connections, survived....social connections = survival
Safety Developed Through Trial and Error
done incorrectly and people were injured or died
as a result, knowledge develops particularly about the environment
this knowledge is passed on and eventually people become experts
Residents check an earthquake-damaged house in Sukagawa city on March 11.
Research shows that after large-scale natural disasters, it's frequently friends and neighbours who are key to survival.
The Key To Disaster Survival? Friends And Neighbours
Government and Community Services
Development of communities paved the way for stronger central governments
formal community safety services
ambulatory care - ancient Rome
fire brigade - slaves
military held responsibility for community safety
disasters still seen as 'divine will'
Historical Examples - Black Death
Emerged in 14th-century Europe and is the first well documented public health emergency.
existed for 300 years and killed 2/3 of Europe's population
38,000 of 200,000 killed in London
knowledge of disease allowed for implementation of public safety measures - 'social distancing'
Modern Emergency Management Examples
irst World War
civil defence started in 1920's England
Air Raid Protection Committee
Second World War
Earlier knowledge put into practice
Air Raid Precautions Service
2,000 to over a million members in 12 months
duties included education, enforcement, assistance, first aid and firefighting
The Cold War
Formalised groups changed from volunteers to full time, paid, experienced staff.
primary goal was to protect communities in the event of a nuclear attack
terminology...civil defence to emergency planning
concentration on technological and natural disasters
"all-hazards approach' was coined
emphasis on preparedness and response
recovery and mitigation not considered
Cold Warriors' began to be replaced with professionals from the emergency services.
development of FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) and IAEM (International Association of Emergency Managers)
formal certifications that consider experience and education, AEM and CEM
9/11 and Hurricane Katrina highlight the need for well trained, flexible professionals
modern focus is on the '4 pillars'
Key Terms -
throughout history, safety has been a primary concern and one of the main reasons for community development
community protection today requires specialised knowledge and a solid understanding of hazards, risks, vulnerability and protection strategies
the primary role of emergency managers is to protect communities...evolution has allowed for greater effectiveness
Risk Factors in Ontario
largest most concentrated population in Canada
over 8 million in the GTA, a 1/4 of Canada's population
60% of Canada's road and rail accidents involving hazardous products
largest nuclear jurisdiction in North America (20 large reactors)
>50% of Canada's chemical industry
generates 1/5 of the gross domestic product of Canada
40% of corporate headquarters
5 largets banks in Canada
the busiest highway in North America - 401
Canada's biggest airport and most recognised land mark....CN Tower
Other Major Concerns........
yearly floods and forest fires
more than 100 severe summer storms
an average of 14 tornadoes every year
blizzards and ice storms
extensive aging infrastructure
What is an emergency?
" A situation or impending situation caused by the forces of nature, an accident, an intentional act or otherwise that constitutes a danger of major proportions to life or property"
Classification of Emergencies
gradual / progressive (predictable)
sudden / instantaneous (unpredictable / unexpected)
Phases of an Emergency
any time prior to an emergency
testing notification procedures and equipment
typically experienced with a predictable emergency
possible activation of Emergency Operations Centre (EOC)
could last for minutes, hours or days
emergency strikes the community
may be for minutes (tornado, accident) or days (floods, forest fire)
emergency notifcations sent to first responders
Response - NERS
may overlap with impact phase in a gradual emergency
in a sudden emergency it begins after the impact has finished
severity determines who is involved (declaration of emergency invokes a higher level response - provincial/federal)
includes the activties required to bring the community 'back to normal'
may be brief but it is often a prolonged period