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Ancient Roman Hierarchy & War
Transcript of Ancient Roman Hierarchy & War
• Two Consuls
o -Patricians (upper class)
o -Equestrians (middle class)
o -Plebeians (lower class)
• Part Citizens
Rights of Romans:
Policy of Foreigners and Slaves:
Foreigners – were free born people who claimed full citizenship in 212 BC reason for doing so Rome could have loyal people who could serve in the army.
Slaves – people brought back from conquered lands, abandoned children, and children of people who needed money. If a slave was married its children would automatically be slaves, had to buy their freedom or earn it, if young then you would be expensive.
Wars of Rome:
1. The Punic Wars: three wars fought between Carthage and Rome for a land in between the two, Sicily. The wars lasted for 60 years, thousands soldiers died on both sides. These wars are historical because of a Carthaginian leader Hannibal. In the end Carthage was in remains as Rome was triumphant.
2. The Samnite Wars: three wars fought between Rome and the Samnium tribe. The wars lasted for 53 years and the Rome dominated the Samnium tribes and the allies of them, the Etruscans and the Gauls.
3. Caesar’s Civil War/The Great Roman Civil War: this war lasted for four years. This civil war was fought between the followers of Julius Caesar and the Senate which was supported by the followers of Pompey. Caesar became the Dictator of Rome and defeated Pompey. This was the beginning of the Roman Empire.
4. The Battle of Actium: this war was fought between Octavian’s army and the combined military forces of the Egyptian Pharaoh Cleopatra and Mark Antony, a Roman general. Octavian’s forces overpowered the allied Pharaoh and the Roman general. This resulted in Octavian becoming the first emperor of Rome; soon to be known as Augustus.
5. The Battle of Cynoscephalae: This battle established Rome to be a dominant, powerful land. Reason being the Macedonian Army defeated under the pressure of Titus Flaminius military.
• Citizens: had civil rights, couldn’t be tortured or executed, could work for the army and could be voted in government
- Wealthy landlords
- Held influential government position that was inherited
- Could become senator, officials in jurisdiction
- Were merchants and manufacturers
- Held military positions of command
- Collected dues and law courts
- Were poor
- Were craftsmen, shopkeepers, farmers (etc.)
• Part Citizens: gained full nationality in 212BC
- were free people born outside Rome
• Non-Citizen: had no rights, freedom, were the possessions of their owners
- Were traded in markets
- Often educated and if sophisticated they could be teachers, doctors, and book keepers
- Were brought back from dominated countries or cities
Leaders and Achievements:
1. Gaius Marius – It seemed that the Roman army was unstoppable because of this man who made Rome’s legions in to the strongest military on earth. Young men from the countryside could become Roman citizens and could be in the army. Gaius gave land to experienced soldiers in return of their bravery. He won many battles and saved Rome and Italy from the barbarians from the North.
2. Julius Caesar – Julius’s most outstanding invasion was the seizure of Gaul that expanded Rome’s boarders to the Atlantic Ocean. In 55 BC he invaded Britain. He was part of the first triumvirate and became Dictator of Rome for lifetime after defeating Pompey and his legions.
3. Octavian – Octavian was the first emperor of Rome and was the adopted son of Caesar, he was part of the second triumvirate alongside Mark Antony and Lepidus. Octavian forces Lepidus to retire, and accuses Mark Antony for taking over Rome. He takes the name of Augustus just before becoming emperor; meaning exalted one.
4. Justinian – Also known as The Last of the Romans, Justinian was the reason the eastern empire relished its final peak; the west had been conquered by the barbarians. He collected other Roman laws and produced a combined cypher of decrees known as the ‘Justinian Code’.
5. Trajan – Was the first foreign emperor from Spain, after three years of being emperor Trajan was in war with the Dacians; German barbarians, regardless the Dacians intellect and ability Trajan dominated them, In 105 Trajan went to war with the Dacians with the hopes of achieving military credit, he again dominated the Dacians and made Dacia part of Rome. In remembrance of his greatness he had a column built.
The History of Trajan - https://www2.bc.edu/nicole-wei/honors3.html - 6/11/13
Achievements of Julius Caesar - http://www.historyrocket.com/roman-history/julius-caesar Achievements-Of-Julius-Caesar.html - 6/11/13
Famous Romans - http://www.roman-empire.net/children/famous.html - 6/11/13
The Mighty Emperors of Powerful Rome - http://www.omnibusol.com/emperors.html - 6/11/13
The United Roman Emire - http://www.roman-emperors.org/impindex.htm - 6/11/13
Roman Slaves - http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_slaves.htm - 6/11/13
Wars of Ancient Rome - http://www.paralumun.com/romewar.htm - 6/11/13
Famous Battles and Wars - http://theromanwars.tripod.com/id4.html - 6/11/13
Introduction to Roman Slavery - http://knowtheromans.co.uk/Categories/Slavery/ - 6/11/13
Roman Foreign Policy between 264 and 146 B.C: Why They Fought - http://federalistpublicola.com/2010/03/05/roman-foreign-policy/ - 6/11/13
Ancient Rome Wars and Battles -www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_roman_wars_battles.php - 6/11/13
Year 7 Pearson History