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Receptive Speech Disorder

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Rachel Sorensen

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Receptive Speech Disorder

Receptive Speech Disorder
Definition
According to IDEA: A Speech/Language disability is a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Categories
Speech articulation
has difficulty pronouncing sounds correctly at and after the developmentally apprpriate age
sounds may be distorted or switched
speech may be slurred
Voice
speech is excessively hoarse
may use excessive or inadequate volume
speech has too much nasality
speech lacks inflection
Fluency
stutter
may have excessively slow rate of speech
may exhibit uneven, jerky rate of speech
Often create social problems, leading to lack of confidence, poor self-image, social withdrawal, and long-lasting emotional problems.
Speech Problems
Language Problems
Receptive language: understanding what people mean when they speak to you.
Expressive language: speaking in such a way that others understand you.
May cause difficulty speaking in social situations, such as problems taking turns in conversation, recognizing when a listener doesn't understand a message, etc.
Cognitive Function or Processing
Cultural Use of Language
Head trauma: Because head injuries are all different the effects are wildly different.
This is NOT a disability, but some of the strategies used for students with speech or language disabilities might work with ELL students.
Categories of Disability Under IDEA. (n.d.). National
Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities.
Retrieved November 12, 2013, from http://
nichcy.org/disability/categories

What is "normal"
Learning to Listen, and to Understand Language
Birth:
-Language learning starts
-Aware of the sounds in the environment
-Listen to the speech of those close to them
-Startle or cry if there is an unexpected noise
-Become "still" in response to new sounds
Strategies


• Make student aware of the difference between hearing and listening (i.e., one can hear sounds in the environment, but until the brain is engaged, no meaning is attached to the sound source)

0-3 Months:
-Learn to turn to you when you speak
-Smile when they hear your voice
-Recognize your familiar voice
-Quieten at the sound of familiar voice if crying
-Stop activity at the sound of unfamiliar voice
-Responds to comforting tones
4-6 Months:
-Respond to the word "no".
-Responsive to changes in your tone of voice, and to sounds other than speech.

Sources
Strategies


***Give guidelines for story grammar elements-comprehension strategy; framework to help
students understand narrative texts
-struggles with sequencing and organization
-breaks story into smaller parts
-includes common elements (plot, character, setting, and theme)
-emphasis on important parts rather than telling the entire
story


What is "normal"
Learning to Listen, and to Understand Language
7-12 Months:
-Listens when spoken to
-Turns and looks at your face when called by
-Discovers the fun of games
-Recognizes the names of familiar objects and begins to respond to requests and questions
Receptive Language (ages and stages): file:///Users/ryfish06/Desktop/School-Fall%202013/Special
%20Ed/Project%20Research/Ages%20and%20Stages%20Summary%20-%20Language
%20Development%200-5%20years.webarchive
1-2 Years:
-Points to pictures in a book when you name them
-Points to a few body parts when asked
-Follows simple commands
-Understands simple questions
-Likes listening to simple stories and enjoys songs or rhymes




2-3 Years:
-Understands two stage commands
-Understands contrasting concepts or meanings
-He or she notices sounds like the telephone or doorbell ringing and may point or become excited, get you to answer, or attempt to answer themselves.

3-4 Years:
-Understands simple "Who?", "What?" and "Where?" questions
-Can hear you when you call from another room
-Hearing difficulties may become evident
4-5 Years:
-Enjoy stories and can answer simple questions about them
-Hears and understands nearly everything that is said (within reason) at home or at pre-school or day care.
-Ability to hear properly all the time should not be in doubt.

Strategies for Learning and Teaching: file:///Users/ryfish06/Desktop/School-Fall%202013/Special
%20Ed/Project%20Research/Strategies%20for%20Learning%20and%20Teaching%20%7C
%20Special%20Education%20Support%20Service.webarchive
Symptoms
*Not seeming to listen when they are spoken to
*Lack of interest when story books are read to them
*Inability to understand complicated sentences
*Inability to follow verbal instructions
*Parroting words or phrases

Process of understanding
spoken language
HEARING- a hearing loss can be the cause of language problems
VISION- a child with vision loss won't have these additional cues, and may experience language problems.
ATTENTION- the child's ability to pay attention and concentrate on what's being said may be impaired
SPEECH- there may be problems distinguishing between similar speech sounds
MEMORY- the child may have difficulties with remembering the string of sounds that make up a sentence
WORD/GRAMMAR- the child may not understand the meaning of words or sentence structure
WORD PROCESSING- the child may have problems with processing or understanding what has been said to them
Diagnosis Methods
~Hearing test by an audiologist
(make sure the language problems aren't caused by hearing loss and to establish whether or not the child is able to pay attention to sound and language)
~Comprehension test by speech pathologist
(compare results to the expected skill level for the child's age)
~Close observation of the child in a variety of different settings while they interact with a range of people
~Assessment by neuropsychologist
(help identify any associated cognitive problems)
~Vision tests to check for vision loss
Assessment needs to pinpoint the child's particular areas of difficulty, especially when they do not respond to spoken language. Diagnosis may include:
Treatment Options
The Child's progress depends on a range of individual factors, such as whether or not brain injury is present. Treatment options can include:
*Speech-language therapy

*One-on-one therapy as well as group therapy

*Special education classes at school

*Integration support at school in cases of severe difficulty

*Referral to a mental health service for treatment
(if significant behavioral problems)


A Misconception:
People with receptive language disorder may appear less capable than they really are because they do not effectively express themselves. However, in some cases their understanding of language and subjects in school is often as well-developed as that of other learners their age. They may simply be unable to express that understanding.
Strategy
Teach child to rehearse internally what was heard until the message is clear or until it has be noted in another form. For instance, the pages in the math book have been marked.

Limit the length of phrases and sentences in the instruction because the language-impaired child may have severe difficulty holding many thoughts in mind before beginning to lose some information.
-Give child series of short instructions and tasks, and then check for completion rather than one long contract


-Remind parents and teacher to:
*Have the child "look" and "listen"
*Eliminate background noises while child is supposed to be listening


-Make pictures-create mental pictures of words (hear, read) in their mind like a TV or camera
making pictures
*Helps comprehension
*Limited vocabulary
*Difficulty retaining information-Seeing is believing! Or shall we say: Seeing is
understanding!

Example
Clinician:
What did you just say?

What did I ask you to do?

Not quite. I said tell me two things you did.

How many things did you tell me just now?

Tell me another thing you did.

Now how many things have you told me about what you did at school?
Child:
I don't know.

To tell you what I did at school today.

I wrote my words.


One thing.


I ate my cheese sandwich.


Two things.
Wood, M. (1982). Language disorders in school-age
children. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Paul, R. (2007). Language disorders from infancy
through adolescence. St. Louis, MO: Mosby
Elsevier.
Cole, M., & Cole, J. (1989). Effective intervention with
the language impaired child. (2nd ed.). Rockville,
Maryland: Aspen Publishers Inc.
Strategies/Accommodations
Hands up, Pair Up, Share Up
Use flashcards that have not only simplified definitions of terms, but include pictures
Students partner up to share vocabulary terms on flash cards.
Student will read the term to the other, that student will attempt to give the word meaning
Children with receptive learning impairment will often have difficulty with reading comprehension

Other Teaching Strategies
Students may require a different format of the textbook/assigned reading material
Laminated chapter books give opportunities for students to highlight, use dry erase or water soluble markers to make notes
Reading assignments given in small chunks, one chapter at a time rather than carrying heavy, cumbersome textbooks.

Strategies
-Use linguistic variations-saying things in
different ways
*repetiton may not be helpful
*louder voice may not be helpful
Ex: Collect the papers/Get all the papers


-Use slower speech rate, but not too slow

-Review previously learned material
-Remember, success is seen in small steps.
-Make frequent eye contact
-Be consistent between approaches used at home and school
-Help focus the student by using close proximity or a touch on the shoulder
-Have clear rules
-Make sure students are not missing out on the same subject/activity while attending speech and language therapy sessions during school time.
-Conversations, discussions, radio/television broadcasts, puppetry, telephoning, reporting, interviewing, telling jokes/riddles, book reports and role playing develops oral language
-Encourage student to seek clarification when uncertain
-Provide support in transitioning from one classroom activity or place to another.
Parsons, S., Law, J., & Gascoigne, M. (2005). Teaching receptive vocabulary to children with
specific language impairment: a curriculum-based approach. Child Language Teaching &
Therapy, 21(1), 39-59. doi:10.1191/0265659005ct280oa



Hansen, T. (2013). Speech-Language Impairment[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
Oklahoma State Department of Education: http://ok.gov/sde/sites/ok.gov.sde/files/
Speech-Language%20Impairments.ppt
Fagan, M., & Prouty, V. L. (1998). Language strategies for little
ones. Eau Claire, Wis.: Thinking Publications.
Stetter, M. E. & Hughes, M. T.(2010). Using story grammar to assist students with
learning disabilities and reading difficulties improve their comprehension.
Education
and Treatment of Children
33(1), 115-151. West Virginia University Press. Retrieved
November 12, 2013, from Project MUSE database.
Forsten, C., Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2003). Differentiating textbooks:
strategies to improve student comprehension & motivation.
Peterborough, N.H.: Crystal Springs Books.
(2013). Receptive language disorder. Better Health Channel,
Retrieved from www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au
There is no standard set of symptoms that indicates receptive language disorder, since it varies from one child to the next. However, symptoms may include:
*Language skills below the expected level for their age
*Overwhelmed with multiple directions
*Requires clarification often
*Requires instructions/directions repeated
*Uses the terms "I don't know" or "I forget"
Bursuck, W., & Friend, M. (2012). Including students with special needs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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