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Copy of Macération Carbonique

overview: biochemical processes, production-process and practicable in Germany?

Juan Hobles

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Macération Carbonique

carbonic maceration Milos Markovic
Oliver Stengel common red wine treatments history of carbonic maceration as old as grapes itself
1875: Louis Pasteur
1935: Micheal Flanzy
1951: "Le Beaujolais nouveau est arrivé"
1967: Andre & Flanzy especially Beaujolais Primeur- / Nouveau-wines (Gamay)
Cotes-du-Rhone, Cotes-du-Roussillon, Macon, ...
Spain, Italy, South-Africa, Canada, USA, ...
Germany: marginal, but potential? France: decreasing importance
Germany: hype in 1980s-1990s
today: Asia (Japan) early drinkable fresh and youthful fruity wines
with soft tannins
mostly for red wines, but also rosé and whites market? use? What is carbonic maceration? "... spontaneously occurring processes within an intact, undamaged berry in an anaerobic phase with carbon dioxide ...” anaerobic metabolism lack of oxygen + saturation with carbon dioxid
transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism

a) decrease in respiration
b) intermediate stage = anaerobic metabolism
c) final stage = cellular disorganization →
a) intracellular fermentation
b) formation of organic acids + N-containing substances
c) diffusion of carbon dioxide and polyphenols processes intracellular fermentation catalyzed by CM-characteristic enzyme-systems alcohol dehydrogenase + malat dehydrogenase introduction the process of carbonic maceration harvest and transport harvest
selective hand picking
small cuboidal boxes with perforated floor (~ 15kg)
harvest in early morning (disadvantage: "start temperature") "anatomic integrity" from vineyard to tank vineyard
loose and small berried rather than compact varieties
healthy, fully colored, thick-skinned grapes
healthy and matured stems transport
fast and gentle technical requirements pressure tank (40-70 hl)
+ pressure relief valve
anaerobic conditions
dome: size + filling
heatable double-layer tank
avoid cooling effects
tank-height grape reception tank with double height
+15-25% grapes under must no de-stemming
conveyor or adjustable slide system
equal filling strategies for generating the atmosphere a) waiting b) continous aeration of the tank c) yeast starters berries respire oxygen + produce carbon dioxide
oxygen > 10%
production of acetic acid / styrene b1) from bottles
b2) from other fermenting tank > 10% of tank-volume, same variety
2 to 3 days before harvest ethanol formation depending on initial carbon dioxide concentration influence of oxygen on the intensity of CM flush tank before filling
(from the bottom)
keep stable for 24 to 48h absorption / emission of carbon dioxid depends on temperature / variety volume of absorbed carbon dioxide in % of the berry-volume exchange of carbon dioxide between berry and atmosphere development of carbon dioxide absorption / emission 1. phase: intracellular fermentation diffusion processes between the 3 phases factor: temperature beginning CM harvested grapes are “cold”
(no CM < 15°C) a) warm up yeast starter (25°C)
b) heating (e.g. double-layer tank)
c) submerge grapes in preheated must (~ 50°C for 1h)
d) heating during transport on conveyor?
e) harvest in “warm” temperatures ... reach temperature limit (> 25°C) factor: temperature during CM induction of the anaerobic metabolism at higher temperatures
in air atmosphere ethanol production fast decrease of malic acid
= reduction of total acid temperature limit ~ 12°C
decrease of 32-57% from skin to pulp
permeability of the epidermis is increasing
progressive reduction of pectin and neutral polyoside
+ increasing release of methanol diffusion of anthocyanic pigments in the pulp after 5d after 7d after 10d less alcohol during CM
diffusion depending on the type of polyphenol
red anthocyans preferred to tannins
... less extraction of tannins from skin / seeds! whole process 30-32°C
max. metabolism in 4-5d
duration ~ 10d decreasing of anaerobic metabolism
inhibition of yeast
sensory degradation
increasing must-production optimum > 35°C factor: time no "standard" duration depending on ...
reaching the temperature
grade of berry-damage
amount of liquid phase
... factor: time criteria for ending the 1st phase carbon dioxide-emissions
density: free run < 1.000-1.050 g/cm3
decoloration (upper grape-layers)
sensory evaluation
technical and economic factors ... normally: 10 to 14 days residual sugar
rich in aroma-/flavor-compounds
lower levels of polyphenols
lower total acidity maximize pressed must volume
press gently
carry mash out gently fractions: free run inferior quality normally fully fermented
total acid higher
total polyphenols higher
amount depends on many factors ...
withdraw from waste drainage increase of total-N
rapid increase of N bound in free amino acids development of free amino acids decrease of reducing sugars
growth factors (Tripterpen, oleanolic acid, oleic acid)
easily assimilateble N-containing substances promoting 2nd phase yeasts benefit
yeast populations normally greater than conventional musts reductive conditions
benefited malolactic fermentation sufficient oxygen and reducing sugars LAB others final fermentation with yeasts
malolactic fermentation recommended
... simultaniously possible press must and free run separately or together? second phase final fermentation of residual sugars filtration or separation
fast start of fermentation after pressing
adding yeasts (free run)?
temperature-lowering necessary (18-20°C)

duration: 2 to 7 days
after first tap sulfurization (2-5 g/hl) microbial stable wines metabolic changes during CM impact on growth of microorganisms? duration of the malolactic fermentation according to the wine treatment why? tasting change of the must composition influence on N-containing substances
methanol fractions: pressed must more valuable fraction formation of aromatic compounds aromatic fermentation of grape berries
aromatic fermentation of yeast
maceration due to alcohol 3 factors formation of aromatic compounds intermediates or flavor precursors shikimic acid
aromatic amino acids more condensable esters
only traces of aldehydes + alcohols
more highly fragrant / volatile compounds leading compounds eugenol
isoamylacetate development of the wines first: floral, fruity
aromatic development
fast oxidation + lost of freshness
no oak modifications of CM maceration semi-carbonique Pfeifer (2008) strategies for generating the atmosphere Beaujolais Primeur / Nouveau
clearly designated AOC-wines
3rd thursday in november aroma profile Pinot Noir - modified CM aroma profile Dornfelder - modified CM aroma profile Riesling - 100% CM Dornfelder-Primeur?
blend with high quality (e.g. barrique)
blend with flash-pasteurized wines
specific style / specialities CM in Germany? resources Beisch C (2007): Eignung verschiedener Rotweinbereitungsverfahren zur Perlweinherstellung, Diplomarbeit FBW 2007/05, Geisenheim.

Bernhard M (2010): Amylacetat beeinflussende Parameter eines maischeerhitzten Weines, Diplomarbeit FBW 2010/7, Geisenheim.

Christmann M (2010): "Maceration Carbonique", Lehrveranstaltung Nr. 6670.1 Technologie der Weinbereitung, Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Geisenheim.

Dardouri S (1999): Der Ausbau diverser Rot- und Weißwein Sorten unterschiedlicher Herkünfte durch Macération Carbonique, Diplomarbeit FBW 1999/01, Geisenheim.


Frischengruber H (2001): Der Einfluss verschiedener Mazerationsverfahren auf die analytischen und sensorischen Eigenschaften von "Blauer Spätburgunder", Diplomarbeit FBW 2000/53, Geisenheim.

Pfeifer W (2008): Maceration Carbonique – Ein traditionelles Rotweinbereitungsverfahren, Fachhochschule Wiesbaden, Fachbereich Geisenheim. Bezogen unter http://www.brw-eltville.de/brw/weinbauwoche/2008/pdf/mc.pdf

Schollenberger A (2003): Macération Carbonique – Ziele und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten bei der Rotweinbereitung, Diplomarbeit FBW 2003/34, Geisenheim.

Strohschneider A (2004): Einfluss unterschiedlicher Rotweinbereitungsverfahren auf chemische Zusammensetzung und Sensorik bei Rondo- und Regentweinen, Diplomarbeit FBW 2004/72, Geisenheim.

slide 1 - http://www.renaud-bray.com/ImagesEditeurs/PG/67/67970-gf.jpg
slide11 - http://www.bernhard-fiedler.at/weblog/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/traubenubernahme2.jpg
slide 13 - http://oerthervineyard.com/home/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/MacerationCarboniqueSchema.jpg
slide 53 - http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2012-11-16-Beaujolais2.jpeg
slide 63 - http://ais.badische-zeitung.de/piece/00/7b/9e/8e/8101518.jpg influence on organic acids malic acid influence on organic acids others diffusion of polyphenolic compounds diffusion of polyphenolic compounds mainly alcohol is enhancing extraction other metabolites residual sugar content in free run and un-pressed berries formation of ethanol: max. 2 vol.%

17-18g sugar per g ethanol must production during the first phase
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