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Transcript of Grounded Theory
Inductive theory - theories emerge from, rather than exist before, the data (Kim, 2008).
The theory develops from different contexts. Different contexts = different theory. For example, a study of year 8 boys in Sydney will most probably have different results to year 8 boys in a rural setting (McMillion, as cited in Kim, 2008) GROUNDED THEORY EER411 What is grounded theory? Data Collection Note taking Coding Memoing Sorting Writing Qualitiative Data Ethical Issues Benefits Limitations Music Study 1 Music Study 2 Cassandra Bennett References Data Theories Emergent Interviews researcher methodology Barney Glaser Anselm Strauss Assignment 1 record Discovery developing analysis Inductive Researching Teaching Education Interpretive Deconstruct Construct Text Study Grounded Data teaching '...to generate theories that are fully grounded in data rather than speculation or ideology'
- Simmons (2010; pg 15) Grounded Theory Emergant methodology
'The discovery of theory from data systematically obtained from social research' - Glaser and Strauss, 1967, pg 2 as cited in Calman, 2011) Inductive Vs Deductive Inductive Deductive Grounded Theory uses Inductive method.
As data is collected, analysis occurs
Constant comparison between data and developing theory are essential Patterns Tentative Hypothesis Theory Theory Hypothesis Observation (data collection) Observation (data collection) Confirmation Data Collection Note taking Coding Memoing Sorting Writing Grounded Theory Procedure As the data is collected, it should be analysed by taking notes (everything tentative).
Formulate ideas, find emerging themes and concepts. Throughout the whole process constant comparison with the data is needed. This is also important to make sure the research is accurate and plausable. Lets explore this more.... Data Collection Data:
'Data are gathered to help the researcher make decisions or comment upon the focus of a research project' - Kervin, Vialle, Herrington, Okely (2006, pg 200) The main form of data collected for grounded theory is qualitative.
Qualitative data that can be collected are
Observation Note Taking After collecting data it is most important to take notes on what is relevant to the research. It is here that you may find a theme or concept to base your research on .
There may also be an option to take notes during interviews or record interviews and take notes after.
Coding is made easier with notes Next
Note taking... Coding 'The researcher oragnises data (usually text based) into similar categories. These categories emerge from the data and form the baseis of anlysis' - Kervin et al, 2006, pg 199 Next
memoing... Memoing Next
Sorting... Memo writing is the methodological link through which the researcher transforms the data into theory (Dick, 2005).
It is essential to write notes after data is collected.
Making memos will happen theoughout the whole researching process (Bryant & Charmaz, 2007) Sorting Next
Writing... Once categories have been developed, clustered and expanded, data needs to be sorted according to categories and properties.
Be prepared - this takes a lots of space!!
Labels are needed for each category.
Constant comparison to the data is still essential Writing Writing is an important part of the research process. It is a blend of interpretation and data analysis aimed at producing a formal, accurate record that can be evaluated by others.
Research must be accurate, meet requirements for different audiences and adopt appropriate style of writing Benefits of grounded theory Adaptable: Able to be used with different varieties of data collection (interviews, observation, texts, field work)
There is a focus on human interaction and what is practical; highly suited for eduction studies and research tasks.
The research is concerned with understanding and improving matters in terms of interpersonal relations
Lots of opportunities to use technologies (eg, computer) for coding and sorting data.
Explanations are grounded in reality: constant reference to the data is required, unlike other theories such as abstract or speculative theories. Grounded theories are are built on a sound foundation of evidence.
Degree of flexibility in the selection and analysis of the data: well suited to the exploration of new topics and new ideas. Limitations of grounded theory It is not possible to predict in advance the nature of the sample that will be used
Ignores social, economic and politial factors such as globalisation, social class, gender and race inequalities. These may be vital to any theory explaining any trends that are related to the topic.
An open mind is essential: researchers may be infuenced by their prior conceptions based on their own personal experience. Everything in grounded theory must come from the study, not imported into the theory.
Complexity of the process: 'Barry Glaser, who saw the template and framework for analysis as unnecessary and going against the spirit of grounded theory by 'forcing' categories and codes on to the data, rather than letting them naturally 'emerge'' (Denscombe, 2007, pg 119) .
Could be seen as 'empirist'; relys too heavily on the data Ethical issues of grounded theory As with any study that requires interview and accessing records, the researcher must make sure all data are confidential; all participants free from deceit, deception and harm.
All research that is published should be accurate, not embellished to suit the researchers topic
The participants do not have to ability to comment on the research results
Hidden research: What is not published? Does that effect the results? The researcher has the opportunity to leave out certain information that they may not see essential, however, it may be.
Information, unless essential to the study should not included such as issues of race, gender or social class References Abrahams, F. (2009). Examining the Preservice Practicum Experience of Undergraduate Music Education Majors -- Exploring Connections and Dispositions Through Multiple Perspectives A Critical Grounded Theory. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 19(1), 80-104. doi:10.1177/1057083709344044
Bryant, A., & Charmaz, K. (2007). The SAGE handbook of Grounded Theory. London: SAGE Publications
Calman, L. (2011). What is grounded theory? Video retreived from the university of Manchester website: http://www.methods.manchester.ac.uk/methods/groundedtheory/index.shtml
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007) Research Methods in Education (6th Edn). New York: Routledge
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008) Basics of Qualitative Research 3e: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. California: SAGE Publications
Denscombe, M. (2007). The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects (3rd edn). England; Open University Press
Dick, B (2005) Grounded Theory: a thumbnail sketch. Retrieved 19th March, 2011, from http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html
Kervin, L., Vialle, W., Herrington, J., & Okely, T. (2006). Research for educators. Melbourne: Thomson
Kim, H.J. (2008) Second Podcast: The Introduction of the Grounded Theory. Video retrieved from you tube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtyNe9w5Pb4&feature=feedf
Roberts, B. (1991). Music Teacher Education as Identity Construction. International Journal Music Education, 18(1). Retrieved 18th March, 2011, from http://drbrianroberts.com/Publications_files/MTE%20as%20identity.pdf
Simmons, O. E. (2010). Is That a Real Theory or Did You Just Make It Up? Teaching Classic Grounded Theory. Grounded Theory Review, 9(2), 15-38. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. California: SAGE Productions
Suter, N.W. (2006). ‘Are biases in research obvious’?. In Introduction to educational research: a critical thinking approach (pp. 11-15,18-20). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. Constant Comparison Open Coding Axial Coding Selective Coding 3 types of coding
Open Coding: Data is broken down into parts and examined for similarities and differences as well as categories and subcategories to find meanings, feelings, actions and events related to the research (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007; Strauss & Corbin, 1990)
Axial Coding: Data are put back together in different ways after open coding by making links and relating concepts to each other (Strauss & Corbin, 1990; Corbin & Strauss, 2008)
Selective Coding: Selecting a core category, relating it to other categories and compared with coexisting theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). 'Researcher identifies a 'storyline' and writes a story that integrates the categories in the axial coding model' ( Cohen et al, 2007, pg 493). 2 different ways to develop a theory (Kim, 2008) (Dick, 2005) (Dick, 2005) (Kim, 2008) Bryant & Charmaz, 2007 (Denscombe, 2007) (Denscombe, 2007) (Denscombe, 2007) (Denscombe, 2007) Music Study 1 Examining the preservice Practicum experience of undergraduate music education majors - exploring connections and dispositions through multiple perspectives. A critical Grounded Theory Frank Abrahams What was the study about?
The paper explores the relationship between teaching skills learnt at a university class and off - campus practicum experience in the US.
9 undergraduate students (pre service teachers) and 3 co-operating supervisor teachers participated in the study. How was grounded theory used? Grounded Theory & Music Study 1 Data collection
Reflections from students
Formal & Informal interviews with co-operating teachers
Observations of students at practicum sites
Written evaluations of the students by co-operating teachers
Course documents - learning goals and expectations, course syllabus & department handbooks
Lesson plans - based on ideas in textbook
Focused (focusing on 1 category at a time - Dick, 2005)
Axial 6 themes emerged
1. Co-operating teachers feel autonomy that gives them autority to make decsions independent of external factions
2. Pre-service teachers percieve the co-operating teachers as role models but are not always pleased with behaviours they feel a responsibility to imitate
3. Although the college course helped prepare pre-service teachers for the practicum, many felt anxious and uncomfortable in front of high school students.
4. Pre-service teachers saw a disconnect between the on-campus collage course and off campus clinical experience
5. Although preservice teachers believed that the on-campus course prepared them to write lesson plans, the co-operating teachers did not concur
6. Miscommunication (Abrahams, 2009) (Abrahams, 2009) Analysis The research accurately used the different procedures, using data collection, coding and developing themes on the research. However, I believe parts of the research were not dealt with ethically and more indepth analysis of the themes was needed. Ethical Issues
The researcher, when describing the background of participants went into describing their race and gender even though this was not relevent for the study topic (pre-service music education). The researcher has not demonstrated bias, however, the opportunity for that to happen was there.
Without being able to look at the data, it seems that there are a lot of themes that have emerged. Perhaps with more coding or sorting of the data, only one or two core themes may have emerged. By looking at the 6 themes, we notice lots of similarities. Bias
'Research results are never 100% free and clear of bias. Culture, prior experiences, beliefs, attitudes and other preconcieved ways of thinking about the research topic influences how a research topic is designe and how the results are interpreted. No interpretation occurs on a neutral 'blank slate'' (Suter, 2006, pg 9) Music Study 2 Music Teacher Eduction as Identity Construction Brian Roberts This was an interesting research paper about how university music education students struggle with forming an identity as either a 'musician' or 'music teacher' (Roberts, 1991).
Participant observations and interviews
Although this paper claims to have used grounded theory as the research method, throughout the paper, I saw very limited examples of this being used. This can be a common issue with grounded theory.
Preconceptions going into the study As previously mentioned, the research paper, although interesting, did not really use the grounded theory model used throughout this presentation. This was seen in various different ways such as:
The author has clear preconceptions and planned hypothesis/specifice topic in mind
Even though the author uses interviews and observation, very little coding seems evidents - or no clear categories formed
More focus on research rather than data collected
The research process was not discussed or even used as a basis for the theme/s
(Strauss & Corbin, 1990)
Why did the author claim to use grounded theory when it seems interview was the only method used? The answer may be that grounded theory is an experimental method, which has undergone many changes Experimental Since the foundation of grounded theory by Glaser and Strauss in 1967, the method has been remodeled, distorted and misrepresented (Simmons, 2010).
Glaser (as cited in Simmons, 2010) when discussing grounded theory with participants in his research seminars 'grounded theory is an experimental method' (pg 17).
Grounded Theory has several different meanings due to researchers incorporating only some elements of the method into their own research.
Due to this the method is always developing. (Denscombe, 2007) Constant Comparative Method The constant comparative method is used throughout grounded theory, as a way to analyse data.
As they emerge, researchers need to compare and contrast new codes, categories and concepts as they emerge to existing data.
By using the constant comparative method the data is the centre of the research and remains 'grounded' in reality.
(Denscombe, 2007) Student ID: 11335982