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h f

on 13 August 2014

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Biological Explanation
Psychological Approach
Explanation for deviant behavior
drug abuse
Sociological approaches to deviance
Tuesday, August 4, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
is a form of behavior which goes beyond the expected or approved behavior of the group.
What is deviant behavior?
crime & its etiology
It is a behavior which maybe be tolerated, approved or disapproved by the group.

What is considered deviant in one society may not be considered as such in another.

What is deviant in a particular society at a particular place and time may not be considered as deviant at a future time.

Conflict Theory
Feminist Approach
to Deviance
is a deviant behavior which have aroused a sense of awareness among people of the danger of such deviance and has developed a common sense of morality.

most commonly abused drugs
nature & extent of drug use
cost of drug abuse
treatment and rehabilitation
of drug addicts
government countermeasures
Crime & its Etiology
Crime Victimization Statistics
Globalization & Crime
Social Control Mechanisms
– are those who accept culturally approved goals but disregard the institutional means to achieve them.
Examples: government officials and low-wage earners who commit graft and corruption to achieve a higher standard of living.
– are those who give up cultural goals but follow the prescribed norms.
Examples: a religious fanatic; an employee who reports to work but does nothing about it.
– are those who abandon both the cultural goals and the prescribed means to achieve them.
Examples: drug addicts, hippies, alcoholics.
– are those reject both the societal goals and prescribed means to achieved them but try set up new norms or goals.
Examples: rebel soldiers; New People’s Army.
1. Infractions of the Sex Code and Laws
2. Infractions of Life, Liberty, Property and against the State
3. Infractions against Self (Victimless Crime)
Pre-marital relations
Child abuse
Graft and corruption
Organized crime/syndicates
Illegal gambling
Biological Explanation
states that deviant
behavior stems from
one's physical or
biological make up.
Cesare Lombroso (1911)
an italian doctor and
criminologist, hold that some
people are born criminals and
have abnormally large jaws, high cheekbones, good eyesight, & insensibility to pain.
some biologist hold that
deviant behavior is a result of
aberrant genetic traits, as in causes homosexually,
criminality, and mental illness
The Psychological approach stresses that deviant behavior is a result of personality disorder or maladjustment that develops during childhood.
The Psychological approach stresses that deviant behavior is a result of personality disorder or maladjustment that develops during childhood.
Some sociologist view deviant behavior as
a form of aggression against others or
against society because of frustration.
functionalist perspective
, also called
, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. It has its origins in the works of
Emile Durkheim
, who was especially interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable.

Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society. The different parts are primarily the institutions of society, each of which is organized to fill different needs and each of which has particular consequences for the form and shape of society. The parts all depend on each other.
states that deviant behavior is caused by an unjust social structure where unequal distribution of wealth and power exists.
The moderates propose more reforms in the various social institutions; the radicals advocate a sweeping transformation or a revolutionary approach, an overhaul of the existing unjust social structure in order to bring about a more or less equal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige in the new social order.
Symbolic interactionism
is a sociological perspective that is influential in many areas of the sociological discipline. It is particularly important in microsociology and social psychology. Symbolic interactionism is derived from American pragmatism and particularly from the work of George Herbert Mead.

Herbert Blumer, a student and interpreter of Mead, coined the term "symbolic interactionism" and put forward an influential summary of the perspective: people act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them; and these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through interpretation. (needs citation)

Sociologists working in this tradition have researched a wide range of topics using a variety of research methods. However, the majority of interactionist research uses qualitative research methods, like participant observation, to study aspects of (1) social interaction and/or (2) individuals' selves.

Feminists believe the theory
that society is controlled/
dominated by men and this
is a bad thing. Therefore
their approach to crime and
deviance would be that the
majority of crimes or acts of
deviance are committed by
men. This idea can be
supported by things such
as the dark figure of crime
e.g. domestic violence.
according to the
Dangerous Drugs Board
, a drug is any substance that brings about physical, emotional, or behavioral changes in the person taking it.

- when the use of drugs, whether lawful or unlawful, result’s in an individual’s physical, mental, emotional, behavioral, or social impairment, there is violation of the acceptable social standards drug use.

Drug Addiction
- a state of physical or psychological need of a drug which stems from its continued use.

Physical dependence
- manifested in withdrawal symptoms which happens when the person stops using the drugs.

Psychological dependence
- exists when a drug becomes a necessary for the person’s well- being.

most commonly abused drugs
- exert calming effects on the nervous system; they reduce anxiety and excitement. However, an overdose may so depress the brain’s respiratory control as to lead the cessation of breathing and eventual death.
Stimulants- sometimes called pep pills, which increase alertness and physical disposition. They hide fatigue and create exhilaration and a state of euphoria. Excessive use may lead to insomnia and deep depression.

Hallucinogens- also called psychedelic, which affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Taking them leads to changes in perception of time and space, delusion, or false beliefs.
Narcotics- relieve pain, make one drowsy and relaxed and induce sleep. They are taken by injection. Continuous use leads to physiological and psychological dependence, which makes addiction a serious problem both for the person concerned and for society
Marijuana or canabis sativa
- often called grass, pot, or weed
- remains to be the most trafficked drug in the world (World Drug Report) 1997
- acts as sedative or hallucinogen and contains a mind-altering psychoactive ingredient
Shabu or metamohetamine hydrochloride - comes in the form of large crystals, similar to chunks of ice, shards of broken glass, or rock candy.
- cost about P1,960 per gram
- also called ice, crack, or chalk
-extremely addictive
-gives the user a feeling of euphoria, alertness, paranoia, decreased appetite, and increased physical activity

Ecstasy – or MDMA refers to a group of designer drugs closely related to the amphetamine family of illicit drugs
- tablet costs from P2000 to P2750

(UP, College of Arts and Sciences 1971-1972):

Data implied that number of regular users do not continue schooling in thee university.
Male students had higher participation rate in marijuana use than female students.
Premarital sex practice was highly associated with marijuana use.
Homosexuality and marijuana use were closely associated.
Scholastic performance as measured by grades was inversely correlated with marijuana use.
Good parent-child relations and communication were also inversely related to marijuana use.
A slightly higher incidence of marijuana use was found among students who live with their parents compared with those living in dormitories or families not their own.
Drug use was highest among member of campus Greek letter fraternities and sororities compared to other organizations.

Cost of drug abuse
- Substance abuse costs our Nation over $600 billion annually and treatment can help reduce these costs. Drug addiction treatment has been shown to reduce associated health and social costs by far more than the cost of the treatment itself.
what is
is a violation of a norm which is codified into a law and backed by the power and authority of the state.
Injures both victim and the society, and therefore criminals are punished through the imposition of fines, imprisonment, or the death penalty.

Crime defined. A crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it and for which a punishment is imposed upon conviction. In the Philippines, the Revised Penal Code (Republic Act No. 3815) serves as the basic law that defines criminal offenses and provides the penalties for the commission of such.

Index crimes, as defined by the Philippine National Police (PNP), involve crimes against persons such as murder, homicide, physical injury and rape, and crimes against property such as robbery, theft, carnapping/carjacking and cattle rustling.

Non-index crimes, on the other hand, are violations of special laws such as illegal logging or local ordinances

 Etiology of crime
Dr. Cicero Campos (1995)
"The International Context of Crime and Punishment"
-discusses the role of the family, education, the community, and mass media.

1. Family exerts a great impact on the behaviour, values, and attitudes of its members.
2. School plays a crucial role in the development, social maturation, and the preparation of the juvenile to become a well-adjusted, law-abiding, and productive member of society.
3. Peer group exerts a strong influence on children. Negative peer group influences can drive the child to truancy, vagrancy, and gang membership.
4. Community offers a wide-range of services for the young as a supplement to the efforts of the family, the school, and the state.
5. Mass media influence the development as well as the deterioration of the character of individuals.

Crime through the years. Data show that there was a steady drop in crime rates from 108 per 100,000 people in 2002 to 69 in 2007. It slightly increased the following year to 75 but took a large jump to 552 in 2009, due to changes in the crime reporting system of the PNP (Table 1).1
In 2010, the average monthly crime rate was 28.2. This means that for every 100,000 people, there were around 28 incidents of crime every month. This declined in 2011 to 20.9 and was further reduced to 18.9 in 2012 (Figure 1).

In 2010, the average monthly crime rate was 28.2. This means that for every 100,000 people, there were around 28 incidents of crime every month. This declined in 2011 to 20.9 and was further reduced to 18.9 in 2012 (Figure 1).
The Crime Situation in the Philippines
Crime Victimization Statistics
March 2001, the SWS conducted a survey on public safety, poverty and governance.

On the public safety, the survey asked about common crimes like burglarization of the home, pickpocketing or robbery outside the home, carnapping or loss of a motor vehicle, and injury from a physical violence. Respondents said they did not report some crimes to the police due to cost, too much bother, futility, and perceived risk to them for reporting the crime.

The survey results(1,200 households as respondents):
3.2% homes broken into; 2.6%, lost motor vehicles; 10.7%, victims of crime against property; and 2% had a family member who got physically hurt in a crime.

Trends in Murder and Rape Incidents in the Philippines and Metro Manila, 1980-1994.
Zarco, Murder was selected as the Gutierrez, and Dulnuan(1995:45-48) studied trends in murder and rape in the Philippines from 1980-1994.

main indicator of social violence.
About 75% of the murders reported are dispute-related.

From 1983-1988, the national murder volume during a crime wave was 9,000 to 12,300 incidents per year. The murder rate ranged from 17.9 to 21.4 per 100,000 population; 10% of the crimes occurred within Metro Manila. In Manila, many crimes were property-related such as car theft, robbery, theft, and estafa; interestingly, the murder rate in Metro Manila was 30-40% lower than the national statistics.

Rape is one of the most prevalent forms of violence against women (VAW) in the Philippines. Reported rape cases ranked third (13.1%) of the total reported VAW cases in the country from 1999 to 2009. The hard fact is that this is not yet the true representation of the problem. Due to cultural and social stigmatization associated with rape, many women victims prefer to maintain their silence and not report their ordeal to the authorities.
In the Philippines, the Asian Women's Resource Exchange (AWORC), an Internet-based women's information service, reports that 794 rapes occurred in the Philippines in the first four months of 1997. During the first semester of 1999 alone, there were 2,393 children who fell prey to rape, attempted rape, incest, acts of lasciviousness and prostitution. As of 2006, Rape continued to be a problem, with most cases going unreported. During the year, the PNP reported 685 rape cases there were reports of rape and sexual abuse of women in police or protective custody—often women from marginalized groups, such as suspected prostitutes, drug users, and lower income individuals arrested for minor crimes. The situation continued in 2007, with the number of reported rape cases increasing to 879.

1.Pakikisama or concession
2. Gossip, ridicule, ostracism, reprimands
3. Favorable or unfavorable public opinion
4. Bestowal or denial of affection
5. Approval and praise
6. Mob violence
7. Verbal labels or censures, such as immoral, sinful, vicious, anti-social, unethical, brusque, grotesque, obnoxious, distasteful, preposterous, ignoramus, barbaric, uncivilized, disgusting, brutal, unconscionable, satanic, etc.
8. Leveling technique or sociostat. (A person who publicly takes credit for an act or claim any kind of superiority in the group is cut down to size.)
9. Curbing of antisocial attitudes by ascribing undesirable statuses or deviance.
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