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The Crystallization of Sucrose Molecules in Candy Making

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LIZ MOEHR

on 8 November 2016

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Transcript of The Crystallization of Sucrose Molecules in Candy Making

The Crystallization of Sucrose Molecules in Candy Making
Review of Sucrose:
common table sugar
compound of 1 glucose + 1 fructose
one of the most abundant pure organic compounds on earth
Generally extracted for consumption from sugarcane or sugar beets
Sucrose is the main ingredient in virtually all candy
How Does Sucrose Crystallize
and
What does THAT Have to Do With Candy?

Sucrose starts out with a crystalline structure
To make any candy
Begin by dissolving sucrose in water, creating a solution (mixture of a substance dissolved in water)
The solution is then brought to a boil to evaporate the water, and destabilize the solution.
So Is Crystallization Good?
So How Do Candy Makers Stop the Sucrose from Crystallizing?
In order to prevent the excess sucrose from recrystallizing when the solution becomes supersaturated, candy makers add...

INTERFERING AGENTS
Substances that can prevent or slow crystal growth
Will bind to the sucrose molecules, keeping them from binding to each other.
Sugars, Fats, Acids, Protein
Corn Syrup:
High in glucose
Produce finer, smaller sugar crystals
Gelatin:found in gumdrops, marshmallows, and other such gummy candies.
The solution is now supersaturated:
contains more sucrose molecules than can remain in the solution

Excess sucrose recrystallizes spontaneously or around any foreign substance in the solution (such as a particle of dust).
Dependent on the type of candy:

Crystalline Candies: Require the formation of sucrose
Pure crystal candies (rock candy)
OR
Candies that require small, controlled crystals
Ex. Fudge, Fondant, Divinity, Marshmallows

Other types of candies may begin with a syrup base (sucrose and water solution):

Non-Crystalline Candies:
Sucrose crystals must be prevented
Would produce a grainy texture in the candy and interfere with its flavor.
Sucrose must be stopped from crystallizing as the syrup is made.

Ex: Peanut Brittle, Lollipops, Caramel,Toffee

Suspend and separate sugar crystals
Results in smooth, creamy candy
Also give many candies distinct flavors and textures.
Acids
Hydrolyzes the sucrose in a sugar solution
Results in increased levels of glucose and fructose
These molecules do not crystallize in the same way sucrose does and does not produce sucrose's grainy texture.

Some acids include
lemon juice
vinegar
cream of tartar
Works Cited
http://www.exploratorium.edu/cooking/candy/sugar.html

http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2009/3/09.03.05.x.html

http://food.oregonstate.edu/learn/crys.html

https://www.msu.edu/~lentnerd/NewFiles/Crystallization.html

maple.dnr.cornell.edu/pubs/.../Confection%20Notebook%20section3.pdf

Candy - Syrup Temperature Chart
INTERFERING
AGENTS
Proteins.
Suspend and separate sugar crystals
Egg Whites
Candy industry revolves around understanding the concentration of sugar to water at given temperatures
Five factors affect crystal formation:
1. Type of sugar
Most often sucrose
Invert sugar (honey or molasses)
2. Use of interfering agents
3. Agitation of sugar syrup
4. Cooling of syrup
5. Ripening of finished product
Beating and stirring of a candy solution
Agitation:
Directly related to the temperature of the solution
When HOT:
Slight or occasional stirring causes crystals
MOST FUDGE RECIPES:
Let cool until 110 F
Beat vigorously until it begins to set
Prevents large crystals from forming large clusters (grainy texture)
Cooling

Stirring too early can cause crystals to come out of the supersaturated mixture

Crystals formed slowly= grainy texture
Rapid crystallization= smooth texture

Fondants/taffies often cooled on cool marble slab (results in fast,even cooling)
Critical to crystal formation and should not be cut short
Ripening
Allowing the candy to sit to form a creamy, smooth texture
Fondant: Requires ripening
Wrapped securely (12-24 hr)
Smoother, moister fondant kneads more easily
Temperature
Type of Sugar
Invert sugar can also be used
Found naturally in honey and molasses
Most common added sugar
Fats (Cream and Butter):
Assignment: Chemistry of Candy Making (on Canvas)
Full transcript