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Hydroelectricity

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nicole pro

on 4 March 2012

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Transcript of Hydroelectricity

HYDROELECTRICITY
HYDROELECTRICITY
The amount of electricity depends of the
V O L U M E and HEIGHT of the falling water.
or by the construction of a dam.
Hydroelectric power is a clean and renewable source of energy produced by the movement of falling water.
What is
?
History of
HYDROELECTRICITY
how
HYDROELECTRICITY
works
Water is collected in a forebay.
The water is carried down to a
turbine.
Electricity is put through a transformer that increases the voltage and sends it across transmission lines.
The water rejoins the main stream of the river.
Future of
NIAGARA TUNNEL
PROJECT
The Niagara tunnel will run directly below downtown Niagara Falls to its destination to the Sir Adam Beck Generating Station.
In its completion in 2013, the tunnel will be
10.2 km long, 14.4 m wide and 140 m deep
This can be generated by the natural drop of a river,
THIS WILL INCREASE THE FLOW OF WATER TO THE SIR ADAM BECK GENERATING STATION, WHICH cURRENTLY HAS SPARE CAPACITY.
THIS RAISES THE STATIONS ANNUAL ELECTRICAL OUTPUT BY 1.6 BILLION KILOWATT HOURS, OR 14% - ENOUGH TO MEET THE ELECTRICITY NEEDS OF 160,000 HOMES.
OTHER PROJECTS
The OPG is also proposing the addition of generating units on rivers where no existing hydroelectric developments exists.
Little Jackfish River
HYDROELECTRICITY
After all, relying on the consistency and dependability of water has supplied approximatley 25% of Ontario's electricity. It is one of the lowest cost sources of energy that can meet peak demands of a growing population.
The future cannot rely on fossil fuel methods of energy production any longer.
The water flows through an intake pipe called a penstock.
The turbine spins as the water rushes through the penstock.
The turbine is connected to a generator which houses electromagnets, a rotor and coils of copper wire. A flow of electrons (electricity) is created.
In such uncertaintly, harnessing all the capabilities of hydroelectric power shows to be a promising solution.
HYDROELECTRIC
Power Plants
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Niagara Plant Group:
ottawa/St.Lawrence Plant Group:
2,650 MW
STEWARTVILLE STATION
SIr ADAM BECK I & II
Northeast Plant Group:
2,278 MW
1000 MW
Northwest Plant Group:
680 MW
Central Hydro Plant Group:
12 MW
SMOKEY FALLS
SYDNEY GENERATING STATION
Hydroelectric Power Plants in Ontario
Advantages and
Disadvantages

Advantages
Disadvantages
Reservoirs can cater to high and low energy demands
Produces little pollution and minimal greenhouse gases
Requires minimal maintenance
low operating costs
can last for over one hundred years
Renewable energy source
Hydroelectric dams are used for flood control, farmland irrigation, drinking water and recreation
very efficient- capable of converting 90% available energy into electricity
Hydroelectric dams must withstand natural disasters
Construction is very lengthly and costly
Hydroelectric dams can affect the flow of a river, altering ecosystems and disturbing wildllife
The construction alone interrupts natural habitats, farmland and scenic retreats.
To Summarize...
Even in Ontario, the movement of water to generate electricity has been used for over a century. Many of Ontario's hydroelectric power stations are even 100 years old and still working.
For thousands of years, people have been harnessing the power of falling water through water wheels.
The Greeks 2000 years ago used water wheels to grind wheat, while in the early 1800's American and European factories used it to power machines.
CONISTON STATION
Water diverted from Niagara Falls will flow into the tunnel entrance, rush around the falls and underneath the city until it reaches the Sir Adam Beck Generating Station.
As OPG is proposing, modernizing existing plants with turbine and generator equipment to increase electricity production is a reliable and dependable solution that can contribute to Ontario's power demands for the future.
They are also suggesting the addition of generating units at existing stations to produce more clean and renewable energy.
The Future
The growing population needs effective and efficient means of energy in order to fuel power demands of the future.
High potential energy
Low potential energy
Kinetic energy
...
TO PUT IT IN PERSEPCTIVE
Mansfield Dam
Niagara Tunnel
Project
vs.
$ 30 MILLION
$1.6 BILLION
Finding a suitable location is difficult
because of impacts on residents
and the environment which
stalls developement in hydroelectricity
SIR ADAM BECK GENERATING STATION
Decaying trees and other
organic matter submerged under water during construction of a dam can release methane, a greenhouse gas
SETBACKS
Past
Future
Present
of Hydroelectricity
......

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html

http://archives.cbc.ca/economy_business/energy/topics/1750/

http://www.cna.ca/curriculum/cna_world_energy_res/hydro-eng.asp?bc= Hydroelectricity&pid=Hydroelectricity
Bibliography
http://www.centreforenergy.com/AboutEnergy/Hydro/Overview.asp?page=1

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0003932

http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/statistics-facts/energy/895
http://www.opg.com/power/hydro/new_projects/ntp/index.asp

http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/01335/hydroelectric.htm

http://www.electricityforum.com/hydroelectricity.html

http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/hydro.html
http://www.opg.com/power/hydro/howitworks.asp

http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/eng4431

http://www.opg.com/education/grades9-12/generatingpower/Hydro.as
Limited geographical regions where one can harness the flow of water, as well as the environmental impacts that accompany the construction of a dam.
?
Decew Falls I
In service date: 1898
http://www.opg.com/power/hydro/new_projects/ntp/tunnel_map.html
Full transcript