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Energy Capture and Release: Honors Biology

Honors Biology Presentation
by

Christopher Himmelheber

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Energy Capture and Release: Honors Biology

Cellular Respiration
Human muscle cells perform fermentation

Anaerobic conditions produced when muscles use up O faster than it can be delivered (oxygen debt)
Occurs in cytoplasm
Does not require oxygen (anaerobic)
Breaks glucose into pyruvate
Yields two molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose
Two major phases
Glucose activation
Energy harvesting
Equation for complete breakdown of glucose
C H O + 6 O 6 CO + 6 H O + ATP
All cells can use glucose

Simple metabolism

Other organic molecules can be converted to glucose for energy harvesting
Yeast cells perform alcohol fermentation

Glucose is fermented to ethanol and CO

Sparkling wine is made by adding yeast to grape juice; CO produces the fizz

Bread is made by adding yeast, sugar, and flour; CO bubbles cause the dough to rise
Pyruvate is processed differently under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted into lactate or ethanol, a process called fermentation

Fermentation does not produce ATP, but regenerates NAD so glycolysis can continue
6
6
12
2
2
2
Why start with glucose?
Glucose metabolism occurs in two stages:
1. Glycolysis
2. Cellular respiration
Pyruvate is an important "branch point" molecule
Glycolysis
Fermentation
2
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Alcohol Fermentation
+
Mitochondrion Structure
If O is present, pyruvate diffuses into the mitochondrion
2
Glycolysis Overview
Location
Input
Major Outputs
Cytoplasm
Glucose
Pyruvate (2 per glucose)
ATP (2 per glucose)
NADH (2 per glucose)
Fermentation Overview
Location
Input
Outputs
Cytoplasm
Pyruvate
NAD
Lactic acid (animals, bacteria)
Ethanol (yeast)
Electron Transport Chain
Chemiosmosis
ETC Overview
Krebs Cycle Overview
Location
Input
Outputs
Location
Inputs (per glucose)
Outputs
Mitochondrial matrix
Pyruvate (converted to Ac-CoA)
4 NADH
FADH
ATP
3 CO (waste)
All numbers per pyruvate; x2 for per glucose numbers
2
2
Inner mitochondrial membrane
8 NADH
2 FADH
2
34 - 36 ATP
36 - 38 ATP overall
2
2
2
Energy Capture and Release
Photosynthesis

Light-Dependent Reactions
Light-Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions)
6 CO used to synthesize 1 glucose (C H O )
Carbon dioxide is captured and linked to organic molecule
C4 and CAM plants thrive when light is abundant but water is scarce (deserts and hot climates)
C4: corn, sugarcane, sorghum, crabgrass, some thistles
CAM: pineapple, cacti
C3 plants thrive where water is abundant or if light levels are low (cool, wet, and cloudy climates)
C3: most trees, wheat, oats, rice, Kentucky bluegrass
Hot, dry conditions cause stomata to close
Causes CO2 to drop inside leaf
O2 levels rise, leading to photorespiration

Water Conservation

Two high-energy products from the light-dependent reactions
ATP
NADPH
2
6
12
6
Alternate Pathways
Full transcript