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Industrial Revolution

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by

Brian Roberts

on 18 February 2015

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution


-Villages fed themselves (subsistence farming)
-1 of 3 fields left fallow (empty) to regain fertility
-Animals grazed in common pastures
Farming in the Middle Ages
Disadvantages
-Inefficient land use
-Farmers didn't experiment with new farming methods
-Population was growing, more food needed
-French blockade of Britain meant no corn, more food needed
Forces for Change
Enclosure Movement
-Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures and experimented with new farming methods
-Villages lost common lands, political power, peasants became poorer
-Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop, were replenished by planting different crops
-Fields not left inefficiently fallow
Crop Rotation
Other Discoveries
-Seed drill planted seeds efficiently
-New crops: corn and potatoes
-Life expectancy of children increased dramatically
-1730's-75% children born in London died before 5
-1820's-32% died before 5
-Population of England by 1901 was 30.5 million
-Massive urbanization and the rise of new great cities
-Manchester
-1717-10,000 people
-1911-2.3 million
Demographic Changes
Effects of the Agricultural Revolution
-More food available
-Population increased

Women's Issues:
A Great Step Sideways
-Many women and girls worked in manual labor-mines
-Other jobs considered "women's work" paid less
-textile mills, domestic servants
Middle class women
-Belonged at home
-Had servants to do work and raise children
-Many never married
-Improved education opened some professions like teaching and nursing
Child Labor
-as young as 6 worked hard hours for little or no pay
-sometimes worked up to 19 hours a day with a 1 hour total break time
-were paid only a fraction of what an adult made
Mercantilism and Rising Demand
-Nations should maintain or increase its wealth by exporting more goods than it was importing
-Import raw materials and export finished goods
-Merchant supplied raw materials (wool/cotton) to be carded and spun
-Took supplies from spinning cottage to weaving cottage to dying cottage to sell finished cloth
-Merchants sell products for more than material and labor costs (profit + larger investment = higher profit)
Merchant's role in Cottage Industry
Capitalism
-Economic system based on private ownership, free competition, and profit
-Cottage industry-an example of early capitalism
Effects of the Cottage Industry
-Big profits for new class of merchants
-Alternative source of income for peasants
Textile Industry
-Cottage industry couldn't keep up with demand for textiles
-Spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule improved spinning
-Power loom sped up weaving
-Cotton gin separated seeds from cotton
Rise of the Factory
-New machines, too big for homes, put in factories
-Factories new power sources; water, coal, iron
-Prices of mass-produced textiles were much cheaper than hand made garments
Effects of Textile Factories in Britain
-Britain's textile industry increased enormously
-Majority of villagers forced to leave homes to find work in urban factories
The Need for Energy
-Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water mills
-Steam engine evolved in response to the need for power
How the Steam Engine Works
-Steam forced from high to low pressure produces power
Effects of the Steam Engine
-Steam power, used where coal existed, increased textile production
-Improved mining, increased metals, in turn fueled other industries
The Need for Iron
-Iron was needed for farming tools, factory machines, and railways
-Smelting make iron more pure
The Need for Coal
-Carbon necessary for smelting iron
-Steam engines powered by coal
Effects of Iron and Coal
-Britain produced more iron than all other countries in the world combined
-Coal powered Britain's enormous navy
The Need for Better Transportation
-Increased production increase need to transport goods quicker and cheaper
-Pre-industrial societies used horses, mules, dirt roads
Inventions
-Stone led to asphalt roads
-Canals
-Railroad era ushered in with Rocket in 1829
Effects of Railroads
-Railroads expanded rapidly throughout Britain
-Cheaper transportation increased production and profits
-Railways fueled other industries: coal, steam engines, iron, steel, manufactured products
Why did Britain lead the Industrial Revolution?
Geography
-Climate is good for textile production
-Plenty of natural resources-iron and coal
-Separation from European wars
Government
-Internal trade encouraged
-Population was allowed to move around
-Helped build canals and roads

Social Factors
-British society less rigid than other European countries

Colonial Empire
-Colonies supplied raw materials for manufactured goods
-Provided markets for finished goods

Advantages of Industrializing First
-No other countries competing for manufactured goods
-Monopoly on technology

The Middle Class
-As more jobs became available, the middle class grew
-bankers, merchants, lawyers, doctors, engineers
-Large houses
-Leisure time
-Fine clothes
Changes in Society
-People became wage earners, dependent of others instead of themselves
-Clocks replace seasons as people's work cycle
-Factories were full of rules, farms were not
-Life became difficult and monotonous
-12 people in one room apartments
-Illness, death or unemployment meant starvation
Housing
-Workers lived in very small houses on cramped streets
-Shared toilet facilities-open sewers
-Disease spread throughout contaminated water supply
-Cholera, typhoid & smallpox extremely common
-The greatest killer in the cities was turberculosis
-By late 19th century, 70-90% of urban populations of Europe and N. America had TB
-40% of working class deaths in cities were from TB
In England & Scotland, 60% of workers in cotton mills were children
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