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Transcript of Hypnotism
Effect on People
People under hypnosis are said to have heightened focus and concentration with the ability to concentrate intensely on a specific thought or memory, while blocking out sources of distraction. Hypnosis is usually induced by a procedure known as a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestions. The hypnotic suggestions may be delivered by a hypnotist in the presence of the subject, or may be self-administered ("self-suggestion" or "autosuggestion"). The use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis".
The First Hypnotist
The Scottish surgeon James Braid coined the term "hypnotism" in his unpublished Practical Essay on the Curative Agency of Neuro-Hypnotism (1842) as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism," meaning "sleep of the nerves." Braid fiercely opposed the views of the Mesmerists, especially the claim that their effects were due to an invisible force called "animal magnetism," and the claim that their subjects developed paranormal powers such as telepathy. Instead, Braid adopted a skeptical position, influenced by the philosophical school of Scottish Common Sense Realism, attempting to explain the Mesmeric phenomena on the basis of well-established laws of psychology and physiology. Hence, Braid is regarded by many as the first true "hypnotist" as opposed to the Mesmerists and other magnetists who preceded him.
Hysteria vs Suggestion
The study of hypnotism subsequently revolved around the fierce debate between Jean-Martin Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim, the two most influential figures in late 19th-century hypnotism.
Charcot operated a clinic at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, while Bernheim had a clinic in Nancy. Charcot, who was influenced more by the Mesmerists, argued that hypnotism was an abnormal state of nervous functioning found only in certain hysterical women. He claimed that it manifested in a series of physical reactions that could be divided into distinct stages. Bernheim argued that anyone could be hypnotised, that it was an extension of normal psychological functioning, and that its effects were due to suggestion. After decades of debate, Bernheim's view dominated. Charcot's theory is now just a historical curiosity.
In conclusion, the science of hypnotism was a great discovery. It can help keep us sane after a traumatic event, numb our pain without anesthetics or even help us quit a dangerous addiction. It has been the life's work of many ingenious scientists. It has benefitted us in so many different ways and their is still so much to explore about it and it's influence on our minds and bodies. I have really enjoyed researching this topic for my ISP and I hope you have enjoyed my presentation and have been able to take something from it.
What is Hypnosis
The induction of a special psycologiacal
state of consciousness in which a person apparently loses the power of voluntary action and is highly responsive to suggestion or direction.
The term "hypnosis" comes from the Greek word
which means sleep. The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "
" (nervous sleep) coined by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841.
By: Anika Tabassum
Franz Mesmer (1734-1815) believed that there was a magnetic force or "fluid" in the universe which influenced the health of the human body. He experimented with magnets to influence this feild and so cause healing. By arond 1774, he had consluded that the same effects could be created by passing the hands, at a distance, in front of the subjects body, reffered to as making "Mesmeric passes". The word mesmerize originates from the name of Franz Mesmer and was intentionally used to separate it's users from various "fluid" and "magnetic" theories embedded within the label "magnetism".
James Braid (19 June 1795 – 25 March 1860) was a Scottish surgeon and scientist. He was a significant innovator in the treatment of club-foot and an important and influential pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy. He is regarded by many as the first genuine "hypnotherapist" and the "Father of Modern Hypnotism".
Pierre Janet (1859–1947) reported studies on a hypnotic subject in 1882. Jean-Martin Charcot subsequently appointed him director of the psychological laboratory at the Salpêtrière in 1889, after Janet had completed his PhD, which dealt with psychological automatism. In 1898 Janet was appointed psychology lecturer at the Sorbonne, and in 1902 he became chair of experimental and comparative psychology at the Collège de France. Janet reconciled elements of his views with those of Bernheim and his followers, developing his own sophisticated hypnotic psychotherapy based upon the concept of psychological dissociation, which, at the turn of the century, rivalled Sigmund Freud's attempt to provide a more comprehensive theory of psychotherapy.
Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, studied hypnotism at the Paris School and briefly visited the Nancy School.
At first Sigmund Freud was an enthusiastic proponent of hypnotherapy. He "initially hypnotised patients and pressed on their foreheads to help them concentrate while attempting to recover (supposedly) repressed memories", and he soon began to emphasise hypnotic regression and ab reaction (catharsis) as therapeutic methods. He wrote a favorable encyclopedia article on hypnotism, translated one of Hippolyte Bernheim's works into German, and published an influential series of case studies with his colleague Joseph Breuer entitled Studies on Hysteria (1895). This became the founding text of the subsequent tradition known as "hypno-analysis" or "regression hypnotherapy."
Hypnotherapy is a use of hypnosis in psychotherapy. It is used by licensed physicians, psychologists, and others. Physicians and psychiatrists may use hypnosis to treat depression, anxiety, eating disorders, sleep disorders, compulsive gaming, and posttraumatic stress, while certified hypnotherapists who are not physicians or psychologists often treat smoking and weight management.
Modern hypnotherapy has been used in a variety of forms with varying success, such as: Cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy, or clinical hypnosis combined with elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy, age regression hypnotherapy, fears and phobias, addictions, pain management, psychological therapy, relaxation, skin disease, soothing anxious surgical patients, sports performance & weight loss
Self-hypnosis happens when a person hypnotises oneself, commonly involving the use of autosuggestion. The technique is often used to increase motivation for a diet, quit smoking, or reduce stress. People who practice self-hypnosis sometimes require assistance; some people use devices known as mind machines to assist in the process, whereas others use hypnotic recordings.
Self-hypnosis is claimed to help with stage fright, relaxation, and physical well-being.
Stage hypnosis is a form of entertainment, traditionally employed in a club or theatre before an audience. Due to stage hypnotists' showmanship, many people believe that hypnosis is a form of mind control. Stage hypnotists typically attempt to hypnotise the entire audience and then select individuals who are "under" to come up on stage and perform embarrassing acts, while the audience watches. However, the effects of stage hypnosis are probably due to a combination of psychological factors, participant selection, suggestibility, physical manipulation, stagecraft, and trickery.
• Hypnosis for Beginners: Reach New Levels of Awareness and Achievement By William W. Hewitt
• Hypnosis: A Brief History
By Judith Pintar, Steven Jay Lynn
Books by stage hypnotists sometimes explicitly describe the use of deception in their acts, for example, Ormond McGill's New Encyclopedia Of Stage Hypnosis describes the use of a "fake hypnosis" act that depends upon the use of private whispers.
We all experience hypnosis at least twice a day
The earliest examples of hypnosis were in the tribal ceremonies of early humans
Hypnosis was used in both wwi and wwii to treat soldiers with combat neurosis. It also replaced anesthetics when supplies were low
Until 1847, the roman catholic church recognized hypnosis as being the work of the devil
Milton H. Erickson, M.D. was one of the most influential post-war hypnotherapists. He wrote several books and journal articles on the subject. During the 1960s, Erickson popularized a new branch of hypnotherapy, known as Ericksonian hypnotherapy, characterised primarily by indirect suggestion, "metaphor" (actually analogies), confusion techniques, and double binds in place of formal hypnotic inductions. However, the difference between Erickson's methods and traditional hypnotism led contemporaries such as André Weitzenhoffer to question whether he was practising "hypnosis" at all, and his approach remains in question.