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Transcript of HALLOWEEN
When Christianity came into power in the Roman Empire it ruled over all other belief systems.
Since Christians come with strict rules and enforeced people to become Christian.
To appeal to the Pagans they created All Hallows Eve by taking part of the
All Hollows Eve
All Hollows Eve falls on October 31 which is the eve of All Saints day and two days before All Souls day.
During these days the Christians pray to those that have recently died and are on their way to heaven.
While they did this they would also light candles on grave stones which is why they are such an important element for Halloween.
All Saints Day was introduced in 609 and was celebrated on the 13th of May.
It was later changed to November 1st on 835 by Pope Gregory IV.
The Christian origin for Trick-or-Treat was originally called Souling.
Children would go from door to door and ask for soul cakes in exchange to praying to the dead.
It can be traced back to the 15th century and can be found from England to Italy.
Apple bobbing was originally used to determine if one would get married soon or not.
This activity traces back to when the Romans conquered Britain.
Set a place at the table for visitors from the other world.
Put food at the ends of the towns.
Perform animal sacrifices.
Bárín breac (barmbrack): "Fortune telling bread", contained a pea, a stick, a piece of cloth, a coin and a ring.
Snapapple: apples represented the god of love, they would hang an apple to the ceiling and the first to bite it would get married next.
WHY OCTOBER 31st?
November 1st was the beginning of the "dark" time of the year where crops began to die. This day was considered to be the start of a new year.
Believed spirits went to the "other world".
On Samhain (October 31st) the barrier between humans and spirits becomes weak.
Wore costumes to scare off the dead.
Made bonfires to ward off spirits.
Carved faces into turnips (samhang)
They put coal from the bonfire in the turnips to represent their souls.
Originated in Ireland and Britain.
Adults would go door to door begging for food in exchange for souling, which were prayers for the dead.
The tradition then moved on to children.
Neighbors gave kids treats so they wouldn't play tricks on them.
SYNCRETIC ORIGIN OF HALLOWEEN
By: Emilie Dávila, Ana Fiallo and Juan Albors
Celts entered Britain in 400 B.C.E.
The Roman Empire (Christians) carried out numerous invasions, the final invasion being the most successful, commencing in 43 C.E.
The acceptance of the Christian religion in the Celtic society was mainly due to concepts that were shared between the two religions, for example the godhead Trinity and the existence of an afterlife.
We see the Christian influences on the Celtic society appearing in the early third century C.E.
Syncretism between Christian and Celtic traditions
Religious syncretism is the fusion or blending of two or more belief systems, which results in the creation of one new belief system.
The syncretism took place after the Christians adopted the Celtic religion by imitating some of their traditions, however accommodating them to Christian beliefs.
How does this apply to Halloween?
All Hallows Day, similar to the Celtic holiday of Samhain, was adopted by the Christians to persuade the Celtic society to convert to Christianity. All Hallows Eve then appeared, and the name later evolved to Halloween.
Halloween in America
Jack O' Lanterns originated from the Irish myth "Stingy Jack". Carved turnips, potatoes and beets were placed near doors and windows in Europe to scare away Stingy Jack and other evil spirits. Europeans who migrated to America used carved pumpkins to replace turnips, potatoes and beets.
In the 19th and 20th century, Halloween in America focused more on tricking others.
All Hallows Eve Continued
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During the end of the 12th Century catholics would wear black during All Hallows Eve.
Accompanied with the playing of church bells Christians would have parades to remember the poor souls in purgatory.
When the Reformation started in Britain the Protestants lost the aspect about the lost soul in purgatory trying to find its way up to heaven.