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Hydration

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David Stewart

on 4 November 2016

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Transcript of Hydration

Hydration for Sports Performance
Assignment 5 - Unit 11 (Nutrition - P5)
Learning Outcomes
Describe the term hydration in relation to physiology and sports performance
Define the different hydration states (5 in total) and the common signs and symptoms of each
Explain the effect each hydration state can have on performance using suitable examples (5 in total)
Task 1
So how much water should we consume daily?
How much water is enough?
Recommendations:
2 litres of water a day to keep our bodies fully hydrated
Around 150 ml of fluid for every 15 mins of exercise
500ml before starting exercise
500ml after exercise
So how much water should a football player playing 90 minutes of football consume in one day?
Answer:
3900ml
However when we exercise we begin to lose water through:
'SWEATING'
Sweat is not just water it also contains electrolytes (salts) that include sodium and potassium.
The duration & intensity of exercise as well as the temperature and humidity will affect the amount you sweat.
Approx 1 litre of fluid is lost during each training hour
E.g. during a 90 min football game 4% of body weight can be lost through sweating.
Effects on Performance
Can you match the percentage of water loss to the performance factor?
2%
4%
5%
7%
10%
Impaired concentration levels
Capacity for muscular work declines
Heat exhaustion
Hallucinations
Circulatory collapse and heat stroke
Impaired concentration levels
Capacity for muscular work declines
Heat Exhaustion
Hallucinations
Circulatory Collapse & Heat Stroke
There are 4 other hydration states that you need to know about...
Hypohydration - is a state of decreased hydration, proucing a less-than-normal body water content
Hyperhydration - is a state of increased hydration, producing a greater than normal body water content
Dehydration - Dehydration is a condition which occurs when fluid loss exceeds fluid intake.
Superhydration - is a state of hydration achieved via the manipulation of the ergogenic aid glycerol
Dehydration - a condition which occurs when fluid loss exceeds fluid intake.
Even a small amount of water lost through sweating can impair performance
Water loss of just 2% of body weight can negatively affect performance.
Signs and symptoms:
In pairs come up with as many signs and symptoms of dehydration as you can.
DEHYDRATION
Thirst
Poor Concentration
Headaches
Dry Mouth
Concentrated Urine
Flushed Red Skin
Rapid Heart Rate
Dizziness
Hypohydration -
a state of decreased hydration, proucing a less-than-normal body water content
The effects of hypohydration on the body are:
Increase in core body temperature
Decreased sweat production
Skeletal muscle fatigue
The signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in dehydrated atheltes. However as it is a state of hydration before dehydration you will not observe the signs of advanced dehydration.
Lets play -
Dehydration or Hypohydration?
1. Lack of energy
2. Shortness of breathe
3. Flushed skin
4. Nausea
5. Clammy skin
6. Headache
7. Disorientation
8. Lack of urine
9. Flushed skin
Which of the following symptoms could be both and which are only signs in dehydrated athletes?
The Answers -
Dehydration
or
Hypohydration
?
1. Lack of energy
2. Shortness of breathe
3. Flushed skin
4. Nausea
5. Clammy skin
6. Headache
7. Disorientation
8. Lack of urine
9. Flushed skin
Which of the following symptoms could be both and which are only signs in dehydrated athletes?
Hyperhydration -
a state of increased hydration, proucing a greater-than-normal body water content
This hydration state can have positive effects of on sports performance in athletes. These benefits include:
Improved thermoregulation (i.e. more sweat)
Improved heat dissipation
Delayed onset of fatigue
The signs and symptoms are predominantly concerned with an increased sweat response during high intensity activies.
Superhydration -
a state of hydration achieved by the manipultion of the ergogenic aid glycerol.
If athletes ingest large volumes of water in a short period of time (2 litres) along with glycerol it has been shown to increase water retention in the body
Reduces overall heat stress in hot conditions
Lowering heart rate
Maintaining body temperature more effectively
The benefits to the body are as follows:
However side-effects include: headaches, dizziness and bloating
SPORTS DRINKS
Sports Drinks
Most sports drinks aim to provide three nutrients:
Carbohydrates - to replace energy

Water - to replace fluid lost via sweat/breathing/etc.

Electrolytes - to replace minerals lost in sweat

Glucose, sucrose & fructose as they are simple carbohydrates that are broken down in the gut quickly
Sodium - promotes the absorption of glucose and water
Magnesium is another mineral that is lost in sweat and therefore is also often present in sports drinks
Hypotonic
This type of drink contains less than 4% carbohydrate and are generally absorbed easily

They are very similar in rehydrating the athelte as water is but the lack of carbohydrate usually results in a 'weak taste'

However this difference in taste could promote athletes to consume them more often than they might do plain water

Most commonly consumed by athletes that require small levels of energy but high levels of concentration (i.e. F1 Driver)
Isotonic
This type of drink contains between 4% and 8% carbohydrate which mimics the concentration of glucose in the blood.

They also contain sodium to promote a swift absorption into the blood.

They can be used any time during activity. However most commonly they are consumed during a break in play (i.e. half-time)

Therefore the athletes that consume those that require both an increase in hydration and a small energy boost (i.e. footballer, basketballer)
Hypertonic
This type of drink contains over 8% carbohydrate which means they take longer to get absorbed into the bloodstream.

They are a good source of energy however they are not ideal to increase hydration levels therefore they are rarely used during an event.

They are most commonly used after an event to replenish glycogen stores and aid the recovery process

Therefore the athletes that consume these are those that require significant carbohydrate recovery (i.e. marathon runner)
So hopefully this is what happens!!
But don't always believe all the hype!
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