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Perspectives in International Relations

MPS 510 Week 2
by

Tiffany Engelhardt

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of Perspectives in International Relations

PERSPECTIVES IN
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

MPS 510 - International Dimensions of
Public Service - Fall, 2013

Sarah Marien and Rod Beadle
So, a realist, a liberalist, a constructivist, a feminist, and a marxist walk into a bar.....
REALISM
LIBERALISM
CONSTRUCTIVISM
FEMINISM
NEO-MARXISM
CORE CONCEPTS:
Anarchy
State Sovereignty
Rational Actors
Self-Help
Security/Prisoner Dilemma
Inevitable Conflicts
Balance of Power/Bandwagoning
Power Over Justice
No Good and Evil
REALSIM - CLASSICAL EXAMPLE:
WORLD WAR I
IS REALISM STILL RELEVANT IN THE MODERN WORLD?
CASE STUDY: CLIMATE CHANGE
Agricultural Pressures
Increased erosion of arable land
Increase in agricultural pests and diseases
Decreased crop yields
Food Pressures
Increased reliance on imported food
Increased food prices
Pressure on poor
Increased malnutrition
Increased social unrest
CASE STUDY: CLIMATE CHANGE
Water Pressures
Increased magnitude and frequency of precipitation extremes
Increased flooding and droughts
Decreased quality and availability of water
Increased water demand and population growth pressure (Habib, 2011)
CASE STUDY: CLIMATE CHANGE
Ecosystem and biodiversity pressures
Rising sea levels (1 m over the next 100 years (IPCC, 2007)
Increased deforestation pressure
Increased desertification (Habib, 2011)
CASE STUDY: CLIMATE CHANGE
Human Health Pressures
Increased hunger
Increased heat stress
Increased tropical diseases
Increased vector-borne diseases
CASE STUDY: CLIMATE CHANGE
How does Realism help to explain international relations in reaction to global climate change?
CASE STUDY: CLIMATE CHANGE
Pressure to maintain balance of power?
Imbalanced weakening of partner states?
Increased tensions as states vie to secure diminishing food, energy, and water resources?
State failures due to scarcity pressure?
Where does Realism fall short in explaining international relations in reaction to global climate change?
Are states the best reference points when environmental issues cross borders?
CORE CONCEPTS
Material structure is not all determining - "Anarchy is what we make of it." (Wendt, 1992)
Balance of Threat
Norms and ideas are important
Individuals and non-state actors are key to the promotion of ideas
(Bova, 2012)
(Bova, 2012)
CASE STUDY - CLIMATE CHANGE
How does constructivism help explain international relations in reaction to global climate change?
States are social constructs who's identities are shaped by nationalism, strategic culture, and accepted norms.
Globalization and growing economic interdependence are drawing states closer together.
Mutual threats and common interests could provide the impetus to cooperate.
Ethnocentrism and xenophobia still have a strong effect on many national populations
Where does Realism fall short in explaining international relations in reaction to global climate change?
(Habib, 2011)
(Habib, 2011)
(Habib, 2011)
(Habib, 2011)
(Habib, 2011)
CORE CONCEPTS:
Idealist Descendant
Realist Challenger
Global Cooperation
Absolute Gains
Copycat Mentality
Confidence Building Measures
CONFIDENCE BUILDING - CLASSICAL EXAMPLE
CASE STUDY: US-RUSSIAN RELATIONS
1991: Soviet Union dissolved and relations warmed under Bush Sr.
Late 90s: Clinton-Yeltsin collaboration on energy, security
Early 00': Bush Jr.-Putin tensions rise post 9/11
Late 00-10s: Obama-Putin "reset" of relations
LIBERALISM IN 3 PARTS
LIBERAL INSTITUTIONALISM
LIBERAL COMMERCIALISM
LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISM
LIBERAL INSTITUTIONALISM
LAWS, REGIMES & ORGANIZATIONS
LIBERAL COMMERCIALISM
SPIRIT OF COMMERCE
Case Study: North Korea- Economics and Conflict
LIBERAL INTERNATIONALISM
DEMOCRATIC PEACE THEORY: CASE STUDY- SWITZERLAND
REALISTS MEANS TO ACHIEVE LIBERAL ENDS?
NEO-CONSERVATISM
CORE CONCEPTS

EMERGING THROUGH THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT
CORE CONCEPTS
MARXISTS VS. REALISTS
Economic class interest over geo-political
Conflicting interests of workers and capitalists
Promoting democracy through use of military power
Invasion + Puppet Govt.=
Hope ?
THE KANTIAN TRIANGLE
(Norton, 2001)
LIBERALISM


Increase amount of women in power
Traditional scholarship is from a male perspective
Inclusion of women would change world politics
FEMINIST-REALIST
Indira Gandhi
Golda Meir
Margaret Thatcher
Enloe 2004
2005: Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
2006: Michele Bacelet
2010: Dilma Rousseff

2007: Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner
2005: Angela Merkel
2005: Yulia Tymoshenko
2010: Julia Gillard
2016: Hillary Clinton
PARADIGMS MAKE DIFFERENT ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HOW THE WORLD WORKS

WE USE THESE CONCEPTS, TOOLS, AND WAYS OF THINKING TO MAKE SENSE OF THE MASS OF INFORMATION ABOUT WORLD EVENTS TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS ABOUT WAR, PEACE, OR THE POTENTIAL FOR INSTITUTIONS TO REGULATE BEHAVIOR
CONCLUSION
Regarding the recent Syrian conflict, if your paradigm were an absolute truth, how would the involved states and international actors be expected to behave?

(Syria, Russia, US, Jordan, Turkey, Israel, Iran, UN, Saudi Arabia...)
(Bova, 2012)
(Doyle)
(Bova, 2012)
(Bova, 2012)
U.S. D.O.S
"If we'd had women at Camp David, we'd have an agreement"

-President Bill Clinton ('00) following failed Peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians
Full transcript