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conflict in darfur, Aman
Transcript of conflict in darfur, Aman
September 2004 — Secretary of State Colin Powell statement that "genocide has been committed in Darfur and that the Government of Sudan and the Janjaweed bear responsibility." Subsequently, President Bush gives a speech at the UN referencing Darfur and genocide.
President Bush requests for 24 000 troops to aid Darfur civilians. January 2005 — United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Darfur found that the government of Sudan provided weapons to pro-government militias in Darfur and that “government forces and militias conducted indiscriminate attacks, including killing of civilians, torture, enforced disappearances, destruction of villages, rape and other forms of sexual violence, pillaging and forced displacement, throughout Darfur. The commission recommended a referral to the ICC and named 51 suspects to be considered.
March 2005 — The UN Security Council adopted resolution 1593 referring the situation in Darfur since 1 July 2002 to the ICC.
June 2005 — President Bush reiterated that the US Government believes genocide is taking place in Darfur
December 2005 — Human Rights Watch reported: “The Sudanese government at the highest levels is responsible for widespread and systematic abuses in Darfur.” September 2006
President Bush speech to the UN identifying the "unspeakable violence" and "atrocities" in Darfur as genocide. February 2007— ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo presented evidence and requested a summons for Sudan's Humanitarian Affairs Minister Ahmed Haroun and Janjaweed leader Ali Muhammad Ali Abd al-Rahman, also called Ali Kushayb, on 51 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity including the murder, rape, torture and persecution of civilians in Darfur.
April 2007 — The ICC issued arrest warrants for Sudan's Humanitarian Affairs Minister Ahmed Haroun and Janjaweed leader Ali Muhammad Ali Abd al-Rahman, also called Ali Kushayb, on 51 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity including the murder, rape, torture and persecution of civilians in Darfur. July 2008
ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo presented evidence and requested an arrest warrant against Sudan's President, Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir on 10 charges of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. 2009 present July 2010
The ICC issued a second arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, adding three counts of genocide to the list of charges for crimes in Darfur. 2010 March 2009
The ICC issued an arrest warrant for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Darfur by Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir,
the first sitting Head of State to be indicted by the Court. and... Three Factors: Ethnicity
Oil Darfur is located in Western Sudan, covering one-fifth of the country and was home to six million people. Results: Since 2003, over 400,000 Darfur civilians have been killed Roughly 3000000 people have been displaced within Darfur 90% of the villages of Darfur`s targeted Ethnic group have been destroyed The Arab Muslims and the Black Muslims had been living together peacefully in Darfur for years.
Starting in the 1980s, drought, famine and the spread of the deserts caused increased competition for land, severely upsetting the structure of Darfuri society.
The African farmers started to dislike the arab herders. The main ethnic groups in Sudan include... the Arabic and Islam (Lived in the North, In Yellow), the Black Christians (Lived in the South, In Red), the Black Muslims (Lived in Darfur, In Blue). The three tribes in Darfur are the Fur, the Massalit, and the Zaghawa. They are all the Black Muslims.
The paler the skin, the higher the class. Therefore, the Arabs looked down on the Blacks and treated them like slaves. So, the Black africans were getting picked on for being black, they weren't getting any infrastructure like the South was from the oil money from winning the civil war, and the water shortage had caused tension between them and the Black Muslims.
Then... Oil Oil= money and power
In Sudan, the oil wells are in the South, but the only oil port is Port Sudan in the North.
The oil is sent from the South to the North. It goes out the port in the North and the money comes in through the port in the North. The North did not send any money back to the South for infrastructure. This made the South so upset that they started a civil war. The South ended up winning. Money was then sent to the South.
Darfur felt left out because they weren't getting any infrastructure like they should be getting. yup
an China's Role China, invested heavily in oil infrastructure, refining and exporting. Today, the Chinese own 40% of Sudan’s oil industry, and 60% of Sudan’s oil ends up in China The Chinese government protects Omar al-Bashir from an invasion by the UN Chinese government provides the Sudanese government with military weapons.
Exclusive to Arabs
Members of militia would bomb villages and towns
Shot, stabbed, and even tortured innocent Darfurian civilians
Threw mere children into buildings engulfed in flames
Civilians were called vermin or slaves
Mosques, schools, and clinics were destroyed
Dead bodies were thrown into wells for the sole purpose of ruining the water supply The Janjaweed The Northern Islamic Khartoum Government: The Rescuers/Resistance: Sudanese Army + Janjaweed + Chinese/ Russian Weapons Genocide