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Transcript of Deviance
How does society bring about accepting the basic norms? Feminist Perspective
Deviance and crime were developed with only men in mind.
The law defined rape as pertaining only to sexual relations between people who were no married to eachother. It took repeated protest by Feminist to get changes in the law defining rape.
Begging in 1993, husbands in all 50 states could be prosecuted for the rape of their wives.
When is comes to crime and deviance in general, society tends to treat woman in a stereotypical way.
Woman who have many sexual partners are more likely to be viewed with scorn then men who are promiscuous. Social Control Techniques and strategies to prevent deviant human behavior
Social Control happens all around us. Family – we obey our parents basically because they are our parents
Peers – show us informal norms
Colleges – have standards on how students should act
Bureaucratic – workers encounter a formal system of rules
Government – legislates & enforces social norms Even without thinking we obey the instructions of the police officers, follow the rules at our jobs and schools
We all know that certain groups or instructors expect us to act “proper”
If we fail to live up to the norm, we face informal sanctions or formal sanction Conformity
Obedience Techniques for social control operate on the group level and societal level.
Psychologist Stanley Milgram made useful distinctions between them. was going along with peers Conformity obeying higher authorities in a hierarchical structure Compliance The Results Less than 2% would continue administering shocks up to the maximum level.
Almost 2/3 of participants fell into the category of “obedient subjects” are used to encourage conformity & obedience & to discourage violation of social norms; they are carried out through both informal & formal social control. Sanctions Formal Social Control is carried out through authorized agents
Formal social control can serve as a last result when socialization & informal sanctions do not bring about desired behavior Informal Social Control People use it to enforce norms casually
Our culture views spanking, slapping, or kicking children as necessary means of informal control Informal & Formal Social Control Types of Crime Victimless Crime White Collar / Technology Based Crime Transnational Crime Victimless Crimes
White Collar & Technology based Crime
Transnational Crime the willing exchange among adults of
widely desired, but illegal, goods &
services Professional Crime a person who pursues crime as a day to day occupation
They’ve acquired skills that reduce the possibility of arrest, conviction, & imprisonment Organized Crime The work of a group that regulates relation amongst criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities
dominates the world of illegal business. It distributes territory, & sets prices for goods & services illegal acts committed in the course of business activities, often by respectable people
In recent decades, computer crime has emerged into a new type of crime which is Technology Based Crime
A study made by the FBI & the National White Collar Crime Center said that over 270,000 internet crimes are reported every year crime that occurs across multiple national borders
Before, international crime was limited through the shipment across the border between two countries. International Crime now spans the globe Binge Drinking Law and Society *Some norms are so important to a society that they are formalized into laws regarding people's behavior. Law may be defined as governmental social control.
*Sociologists see the creation of laws as a social process, because laws are passed in response to a perceived need for formal social control.
*One current and controversial debate over laws governing behavior is whether people should be allowed to use marijuana legally, for medical purposes.
* In 2005 the Supreme Court upheld the federal government's position. Nevertheless, 13 states have granted citizens the right to use marijuana for medical purpose.
*In the United States and other societies around the world, people are socialized both want to belong and to fear being viewed as different or deviant. Control Theory It suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms. Socialization develops our self-control so well that we don't need further pressure to obey social norms. Social Policy and Social Control Gun Control It is efforts to regulate or control sales of guns. Understanding the Issue -While reported crime has declined in recent years, the role of firearms in crime has remained fairly consistent.
-Over the past five years, two-thirds of all murders were committed with firearms.
-Although handgun owners frequently insist that they need to own firearms to protect themselves and their loved ones from violent crime, over the years, high-profile assassinations of public figures like President John F. Kennedy and more.
-Gun rights groups are now testing the constitutionality of other restrictions on gun ownership. Gun control advocates are working to craft legislation that will be acceptable to the justices. Applying Sociology -Guns and ammunition are big business in the Unites States, where the Second Amendment to the Constitution guarantees the "right of the people to keep and bear arms." Currently, about 42% of US households have some type of firearm on the premises.
-In 2009, 45% of people supported protecting gun owners' rights compared to only 34% in 1993.
-The National Rifle Association (NRA) has been able to use its impressive power to block or dilute gun control effort.
-Conflict theorists contend that powerful groups like the NRA can dominate the legislative process because of their ability to mobilize resources in opposition to the will of the majority. Initiating Policy Advocated for stricter gun control laws have identified a series of measures they would like to see enacted: -Strengthen the tools law enforcement officers need to crack down on corrupt gun dealers and curb illegal gun trafficking.
-Extend Brady background checks to all gun sales.
-Stop large-volume gun sales that supply gun traffickers. The proposed legal restrictions on gun ownership have met strong opposition from both the NBA and firearms manufacturers.
Public health advocates have weighed in on the issue, noting the 30,000 people in the United States who die every year through gun violence, whether by suicide, homicide, or accidental discharge.
The unlawful use of guns is an issue the is not limited to the United States; it is a global issue. Durkhelm’s Legacy Merton's Theory Of Deviance Cultural Transmission Social Disorganization Theory Emile Durkhelm focused his sociological investigation mainly on criminal acts, yet his conclusions have implications for all types of deviant behavior. His anomie theory of deviance posits five basic forms of adaption in Merton's typology is the opposite of deviance. In the course of studying graffiti writing by gangs in Los angles, sociologist Susan A. Phillips discovered that the writers learned from one another. In fact, Phillip was surprised by how stable their focus was over time. She also noted how ethnic groups built on the models of the African American and Chicago gangs, superimposing Cambodian, Chinese, or Vietnamese symbols. increases in crime and deviance can be attributed to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions, such as the family, school, church, and local government. Labeling theory is also called societal reaction approach, reminding us that it is the response to an act, not the behavior itself, that determines deviance. Violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties
Crime represents a deviation from formal social norms administered by the state
Laws divide crimes into categories
Index Crime – refers to the 8 types of crime that are tabulated each year by the FBI. They are murder, rape, robbery, assault, property crimes of burglary, theft, motor vehicles theft, and arson Questions asked to people to determine if they have been victims of crimes
They had limitations. The people have to understand what happened to them and have to be willing to disclose such information to the interviewers Victimization Survey Aren’t as accurate as social scientists would like
After many years of increase in crime, there has been a significant decline in violent crime nationwide. A number of explanations have been offered.
Crime prevention programs
New gun control laws
Massive increase in prison population Crime Statistics Between the years 1999 – 2008 female arrests have increased 12% while male arrests declined 19%
Citizens are more worried about violent crime, thus a significant decrease in the number of rapes and robberies, slightly larger increase in the number of cars stolen, leading to the impression that personal safety is more at risk than before.
Crime statistics only include the ones that were actually reported to law enforcement agencies Crime What is Deviance? Being late for class is categorized
as a deviant act; the same is true
of wearing jeans to a formal wedding. A person can acquire a deviant identity in many ways, because of physical or behavior characteristics, some people are unwillingly cast in negative social roles Once assigned a deviant roles, they have trouble presenting a positive image to others and may even experience lowered self-esteem.