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Sedimentary Rocks

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Aida Rosenbaum

on 27 February 2017

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Transcript of Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks
formed in aquatic environments from fragments (sediments) of other rocks. The process of a rock forming is called lithification. The method of lithification is different for each of the three types of sedimentary rocks.
Sedimentary Rocks are...
Crystalline sedimentary rocks are formed when ancient
oceans evaporated
and the minerals in the water crystallized to form rocks. The particles that form from this process are called precipitates and evaporites.
Crystalline
Bioclastic sedimentary rocks contain
remains of once living things
. Clastic and bioclasic sedimentary rocks are the only types of rocks that may contain fossils due to the quick burial and anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions in which they form.
Bioclastic
Clastic sedimentary rocks form at the bottom of oceans as
small pieces of eroded rock
from the land wash into the ocean and sink to the bottom.

Each layer is sorted with the same size sediments and becomes a specific sedimentary rock through
burial, compaction, and cementation
(when minerals between the sediments solidify and bond sediments together).

Clastic
composed of large and small rounded sediments. Easy to spot by looking for pebbles in the rock.
Conglomerate (clastic)
Limestone is the bioclastic rock that forms at the bottom of the ocean from the burial, compaction, and cementation of sea shells. Look closely for small pieces of shells.
Limestone (bioclastic)
Rock salt is an example of precipitates that crystallized as ancient oceans evaporated.
Rock Salt (crystalline)
contains layers of sand particles (0.006 to 0.2cm). Has a sandy texture (feels like sandpaper).
Sandstone (clastic)
Coal is a dull black bioclastic rock that formed in swamps during the Carboniferous period when ancient plants and animals were preserved underwater, that is why coal is called a fossil fuel.
Bituminous Coal (bioclastic)
Limestone can also form when dissolved calcite (from sea shells or older limestone) precipitates out of the water and crystallizes. You cannot see any sea shells in this type of limestone.
Limestone (crystalline)
ESRT p.6
Shale (clastic)
ESRT p.7
contains layers of clay (less than 0.0004cm) which is the smallest sediment. Has a smooth gray appearance.
Note: smaller sediments settle further from the shore.
Horizontal sorting
Salt flats in Utah
What do we already know about the reaction of acid rain and limestone?
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