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Unit 1: Formulae, Equations and Amount of Substance

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Claire Sugdon

on 6 February 2015

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Transcript of Unit 1: Formulae, Equations and Amount of Substance

Unit 1: Formulae, Equations and Amount of Substance
Lesson 1

Lesson Objectives
1.3a Demonstrate an understanding of the terms atom, element, ion, molecule,
compound, empirical and molecular formulae

1.3b Write balanced equations (full and ionic) for simple reactions, including the
use of state symbols
Empirical Formulae
Step 1:
Note the mass of each element
Step 2:
Divide by the atomic number
Step 3:
Divide by the lowest figure
Step 4:
Obtain the lowest whole number ratio to get the empirical formula
Molecular Formulae
Step 1:
Find the empirical formula mass
Step 2:
Divide the relative molecular mass by the empirical formula mass
Step 3:
Multiply the number of atoms in the empirical formula by the number in step 2
Full and Ionic Equations
Only some of the ions in an equation take part in the equation. The ions that play no part in the reaction are called spectator ions. Spectator ions are the ions that change state.
In your own words, define the following terms
Atom
Element
Ion
Molecule
Compound
Empirical formulae
Molecular formulae
Definitions you need to know!
Atom:
The smallest unit of mass that defines the chemical elements
Element:
A pure chemical substance consisting of a single type of atom distinguished by its atomic number
Ion:
A charged atom or molecule
Molecule:
Two or more elements chemically bonded together
Compound:
A substance made of two or more different elements chemically bonded together
Empirical formulae:
The formulae that tells us the simplest ratio of the different atoms present in a molecule
Molecular formulae:
The formulae that tells us the actual numbers of each type of atom in a molecule

Chemical formulae and state symbols
It is sometimes useful to specify the physical states of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

s = solid
l = liquid
g = gas
aq = aqueous ( a solution in water)

State symbols are written after the formula of each reactant and product
Full transcript