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Rural and Urban Communities

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by

Mari Sy

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of Rural and Urban Communities

Rural and Urban Communities
Early Beginning
Urban Culture
URBANIZATION
The Folk- Urban Continuum

The folk community is geographically isolated; culturally simple and socially homogenous; has its institutions and patterned along family and kingship lines; used sacred (religious) sanctions to control individual’s behavior

Urban Ecological Structures
Ecological patterning
Concentric Zone Model
sector theory
The Multiple Nuclei Model
Classifications of Urban Environment
Urbanized area
Metropolitan Area
Metropolitan Area
People have gotten most of their food from hunting and fishing (
Upper Paleolithic
)
Exploitation of local and relatively permanent resources (
Middle Stone Age
)
Cultivation and domestication of plants and animals started (
Neolithic Revolution
)
Reasons for Domestication and Cultivation
Drastic change in climate
Discovered that some animals could be cultivated
Hunter population increased
People saw cultivation most efficient
Effects of Food Production
Accelerated population growth
Declining health
Elaboration of material possesions
Some Features of Philippines Rural Communities
Population is small enough to promote primary group interaction
Economy is characterized by the people's occupation
Intimacy and mutual helpfulness are main patterns of community spirit
Neighborliness is an important part of human behavior
Economic cooperation is seen
Every individual is bound to his neighbors
traditional
The Rural Culture
Formal Belief System
Animistic Belief
Fiestas
Urban community
Is a close to and institutionally interrelated with other communities; is culturally complex and socially heterogeneous; has institutions patterned along formal lines; use secular sanctions to control individual’s behavior.

The development of cities
The first true cities are estimated to have appeared about 5500 to 6000 yrs ago.

Early cities
Were walled and fortified
Were controlled by feudal lords
These cities grew rapidly during the 17th and 18th century and has a population growth of more than a million.
Around 3200 BC, Memphis was built as the capital of Egypt.
Between 2500 and 200 BC, Major cities were built like Pakistan and the two largest cities Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro that wew the most advanced cities by that time.
In 2400 BC, cities were established in Europe
In 1850 BC , cities were established in china
1500 years after (300 BC to 300 AD), cities were established in America.

World’s first fully developed cities
In the middle eastern area, Iraq is one of the first fully developed cities which was the sight of the Sumerian civilization.
Mesopotamia, a place of trade around 6000 years ago when man were exchanging material good as wells as knowledge of technological and social innovations.
Sumerian cities were clustered around temples made of high consturctions or brick sheathed mounds called ziggurats.

Early cities
Early cities had to be a surplus of food and other necessities.
Early cities had to be some form of social organization that went beyond the family.

Urban culture
are described to be usually large, with people engaged in varied occupations.

City
Evolution of Cities
Pre Industrial Cities
Housed only 5 to 10 percent of the country's population
Had population of less than 10,000
Mostly walled for protection
Industrial Cities
Brought about by the Industrial Revolution
Have no physical boundary that separates them from other towns
Centers of business, banking and manufacturing
Usually consists of the middle class
URBAN ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Concentration
Dispersion
Centralization
Decentralization
Invasion
Succession
Refers to the process of concentration of population through migration process
Social Interaction in urban communities
• Characterized by a high degree of anonymity (greater chance of personal choices).
• “Urbanism as a way of life”
• High population density
• Culturally heterogeneous and increasingly complex
• Impersonal relationship prevailing in the city
• Arbitrary but socially meaningful boundary lines(urban neighborhood)

Functional Classifications of cities
• Ferdinand Toennis (Gemeinschaft & Gesselschaft)
o Gemeinschaft – qualities of life are lost because of urbanization
o Gesselschaft – relationship are fleeting and manipulative rather than warm and intimate
• Emile Durkheim (Anomie theories)

Effects of overcrowding
The more person per room, the more people complain
Withdrawing both physically and emotionally
People on crowded homes have poorer mental health
Members of crowded homes had poor social relationship with each other
Child care in crowded homes was poor.
The effects of crowding began to show up when there is more than one person per room in a household.

Growth of Metro Manila
• Established 1571 by the Spaniards (Intramuros, Manila)
• Educational, trading and commercial center of the country
• Population Increased tremendously
• Binondo, Manila as “Chinatown”
• Mostly upper-class in Ermita & Malate
• Squatters in Intramuros
• UST established in 1611

Theories of Urban Impact
• Ferdinand Toennis (Gemeinschaft & Gesselschaft)
o Gemeinschaft – qualities of life are lost because of urbanization
o Gesselschaft – relationship are fleeting and manipulative rather than warm and intimate
• Emile Durkheim (Anomie theories)

Is something more than a large dense aggregation of people, buildings and non-agricultural occupations, characterized by complex, impersonal, and social relations
May also refer to an internally organized community containing different social classes or groups.
Due to its large population, there are diverse and complex structures. Contacts lend to be impersonal and anonymous.
A city’s population affects the complexity of social structure.
The social institutions are more distinct in the urban areas than in rural areas.
Population tends to be heterogeneous, with varied and diverse cultures.
Folkways and mores tend to lose their effectivity in enforcing conformity among the members. Control becomes formal as in the case of laws, orders, and others.
Urban centers manifest more pronounced social stratification than in the rural areas.
The social institutions are more distinct in the urban areas than in rural areas.
Population tends to be heterogeneous, with varied and diverse cultures.
Folkways and mores tend to lose their effectivity in enforcing conformity among the members. Control becomes formal as in the case of laws, orders, and others.
Urban centers manifest more pronounced social stratification than in the rural areas.
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