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Transcript of Gender
Gender Schema Theory
How does an individual's mental process affect his/her learning, employment, involvement in extracurricular activities, and activities?
How individuals become gendered in society
How sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture
Men Vs. Women
differences in the level to which people hold these gender schemata due to the degree individuals are sex-typed.
info is in line with their gender
cross sex typed
info is on opposite gender
info from both genders
Influences: Social and cultural -- media, family and peer groups, schools etc.
Brain Sex Theory
+ Social Change
Based on research which suggest there are a number of sections in the brain that are different between males and females. (
Sexually dimorphic structures
Differences that are seen in males and females contribute to what are typically considered masculine and feminine traits.
Eg. Testosterone is found in larger quantities in men rather than women (responsible for "masculine" traits)
Sex Vs. Gender
Sex refers to biological differences between males and females.
Eg. Male chromosomes are XY and female chromosomes are XX
Reproductive organs (ovaries, testes)
Hormones (estrogen, testosterone)
memory and other cognitive tasks designed to assess facilitated processing of sex-typed information.
Gender refers to the cultural differences expected (by society / culture) of men and women according to their sex.
A person's sex doesn't change after birth, but their gender can
remember more traits associated with their sex
Processed sex type info more efficiently
Sex Vs. Gender
Suggestions for eliminating sex typing:
of media that promotes sex-typing
An organized pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.
In the past, people had clear ideas about what was appropriate for each sex, anyone who behaved differently were considered deviants
Today we see a lot more diversity, we see gender as a scale rather than just two categories
Gender is determined by two biological factors: hormones and chromosomes
Brain Sex Theory
Quadango et al. (1977) found that female monkeys who were deliberately exposed to testosterone during prenatal development later engaged in more rough and tumble play than other females
Young (1966) changed the sexual behavior of both male and female rats by manipulating the amount of male and female hormones that the rats received during their early development
Understanding and acceptance of stereotypes comes early in life.
Gender stereotypes taught to children have negative effects on various aspects of life.
Affects on Learning
Numerous differences have been observed in the way boys and girls learn.
Develop at different rates (ie. verbal communication and writing)
Affects on Employment
Paternity vs Maternity leave
Teaching alternative schemata
Ex.Individual differences schema
(women expected to be passive/submissive, men are confident and dominant)
(men work, women clean)
until recent year men were more often pilots and not flight attendants)
(women small and dainty, men are big/strong)
Affects on Relationships