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History of International Development Cooperation (Year)

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on 28 March 2014

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Transcript of History of International Development Cooperation (Year)

1939 ~ 1945
The UN was founded in 1945
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
1948 ~ 1952
(European Recovery Program)
The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.
the 16th session of the General Assembly
UN GA - A/RES/1710(XVI)
UN GA - A/RES/1715(XVI)
Development Assistance Committee
the 25th session of the General Assembly
UN GA - A/RES/2626(XXV)
International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade
Cold War
the post Cold War era
Declaration of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, formally establishing the dissolution of the Soviet Union as a state and subject of international law.
World Summit
for Social Development
At the World Summit for Social Development, held in March 1995 in Copenhagen, Governments reached a new consensus on the need to put people at the centre of development. The Social Summit was the largest gathering ever of world leaders at that time. It pledged to make the conquest of poverty, the goal of full employment and the fostering of social integration overriding objectives of development.
At the end of their deliberations, the delegates at the Summit agreed on the adoption of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development, and the Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development.
Shaping the 21st Century:
the contribution of Development Co-operation
(International Development Cooperation)
1996 OECD Development Assistance Committee
In May 1996, the DAC adopted a new strategy called Shaping the 21st Century: The Contribution of Development Cooperation. The Shaping the 21st Century Strategy (S21C), also referred to as the Development Partnerships Strategy, envisaged a limited number of indicators which could be monitored, to assess progress towards development goals which had emerged from several UN Summits held during the early 1990's. Since 1996, many donors have tried to incorporate the principles of S21C and development partnerships into their aid policies. And many donors (such as DFID UK) now see the International Development Targets (IDTs) as key goals
Sales No.: E. 00.I.16
ISBN: 92-1-100844-1

IDGs and MDGs
1996, OECD
2000, UN
the 55th session of the General Assembly
Millennium Summit
In September 2000, building upon a decade of major United Nations conferences and summits, world leaders came together at United Nations Headquarters in New York to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and setting out a series of time-bound targets - with a deadline of 2015 - that have become known as the Millennium Development Goals
Road map towards the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration
8 Goals
18 Targets
49 Indicators
(Millennium Development Goals)

by Minho KANG
Progress towards the international development goals
A Better World for All
Goal:Reduce maternal mortality ratios by three-quarters by 2015
More than 500,000 women died during pregnancy and childbirth in 1995—and many millions more suffered without treatment
Goal:Reduce infant and child mortality rates by
two-thirds by 2015
Infant and
child mortality
11 million children
under the age of 5
died in 1998, most from
preventable causes
Goal:Empower women and eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005
Closing the gender gap in
education adds 0.5
percentage points to
annual growth in GNP per
Goal: Enrol all children in primary school
by 2015
In developing
countries 1 child in 3
does not complete 5
years of schooling
Goal: Halve the proportion of people living in
extreme poverty by 2015
Across the globe 1 person
in 5 lives on less than $1
a day—and 1 in 7 suf fers
chronic hunger
Goal:Provide access for all who need reproduc-tive health services by 2015
120 million
couples who want to
space the births of
their children or
stop having
children are not
using contraception
Goal:Implement national strategies for sustain-able development by 2005 so as to reverse the loss of environmental resources by 2015
In the early 1990s about 17
million hectares of tropical
forests—four Switzerland—
were cleared annually. If this
continues, 5–10% of tropical
forest species will face
extinction in the next 30 years
The congruence forum UN, OECD, IMF and WB
March 2000: Forum
June 2000: Report
Goal: Halve the proportion of people living in
extreme poverty by 2015
Across the globe 1 person
in 5 lives on less than $1
a day—and 1 in 7 suf fers
chronic hunger
Goal: Halve the proportion of people living in
extreme poverty by 2015
Across the globe 1 person
in 5 lives on less than $1
a day—and 1 in 7 suf fers
chronic hunger
Accra Agenda for Action
Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
The Rome Declaration on Harmonisation
OECD DAC - Aid Effectiveness
[HLF1] February 2003 Rome
[HLF2] March 2005 Paris
[HLF3] September 2008 Accra
[HLF4] December 2011 Busan
The Launch of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation is,

a Fare well to the Working Party
on Aid Effectiveness(WP-EFF)
Source: 2012 Enna Park, Seoul ODA International Conference
Partner countries exercise effective leadership over their development
policies, and strategies and co-ordinate development actions
Donors base their overall support on partner countries’ national
development strategies, institutions and procedures
Donors’ actions are more harmonised, transparent and collectively
Managing resources and improving decision-making for results
Donors and partners are accountable for development results
ISBN 92-64-19982-9 – © OECD 2003
Strengthening Country Ownership over Development
Building More Effective and Inclusive Partnerships for Development
Delivering and Accounting for Development Results
16. Aid is about building partnerships for development. Such partnerships are most effective when they fully harness the energy, skills and experience of all development actors—bilateral and multilateral donors, global funds, CSOs, and the private sector. To support developing countries’ efforts to build for the future, we resolve to create partnerships that will include all these actors.
22. We will be judged by the impacts that our collective efforts have on the lives of poor people. We recognise that greater transparency and accountability for the use of development resources—domestic as well as external—are powerful drivers of progress.
12. Developing countries determine and implement their development policies to achieve their own economic, social and environmental goals. We agreed in the Paris Declaration that this would be our first priority. Today, we are taking additional steps to turn this resolution into a reality.
Improvements in development effectiveness
Good practice standards or principles
Going forward
that development assistance be delivered based on the priorities and timing of the countries receiving it

that donor efforts concentrate on delegating co-operation and increasing the flexibility of staff on country programmes and projects

and that good practice be encouraged and monitored, backed by analytic work to help strengthen the leadership that recipient countries can take in determining their development path
Inclusion of new actors on the basis of shared principles and differential commitments
Shared principles to achieve common goals
From effective aid to co-operation for effective development
Improving the quality and effectiveness of development co-operation
The road ahead: Partnering for progress towards and beyond the MDGs
- Ownership, results and accountability
- Transparent and responsible co-operation
- Promoting sustainable development in situations of conflict and fragility
- Partnering to strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability in the face of adversity
- South-South and triangular co-operation for sustainable development
- Private sector and development
- Combating corruption and illicit flows
- Climate change finance
1. 국내 재원 마련
2. 해외 민간자본의 유입
3. ODA
4. 부채탕감

5. 국제무역 확대
6. 혁신적 재원
7. 거버넌스
8. 다른 이슈와의 상호관계
Monterrey Consensus
국내 재원의 조성, FDI 등 국제 민간자금 유입 확대, 국제무역 촉진, 부채탕감, 국제금융시스템 재편 등을 제시
Doha Declaration
(United Nations Financing for Development)
Monterrey, Mexico,18-22 March 2002
Doha, Qatar, 29 November - 2 December 2008
개발재원(국내 재원, 국제 재원, 혁신적 재원)
the 52nd session of the General Assembly
총회는 개발재원에 관한 고위급 정부 간 파트너십에 관한 내용을 담은 결의안을 채택하고, 파트너십의 형태, 범위, 어젠다를 분석, 이를 다음 총회에 전달할 실무그룹(ad hoc open-ended working group)을 구성할 것을 결정
2011 정지원, 정지선, 국제사회의 개발재원 논의동향과 한국의 정책과제, KIEP
the 54th session of the General Assembly
개발재원 논의를 위한 장관급 이상이 참여하는 고위급 행사의 개최가 결정되었으며, 이를 위해 정부 간 준비위원회를 구성하기로 하였다.

코피 아난 사무총장은 전 멕시코 대통령 세디요(Zedillo) 박사를 고위급 패널의 의장으로 선임하고
개도국의 수요를 충족시키기 위한 개발재원 동원전략에 관한 보고서를 작성하도록 요청
Zedillo’s Recommendation of High-Level Panel(2001)
1. 국내 재원확대 2. 국제 재원확대 3. 국제무역 촉진 4. ODA 확대 5. 외채경감 6. 국제금융체제 개편
국내 재원의 조성, 해외직접투자 등의 국제 재원 확대, 국제무역 촉진, 부채 탕감, 국제금융체제 개편 등으로 구분
선진국의 GNI 대비 ODA 목표치인 개도국에 대해서는 0.7%, 최빈국에 대해서는 0.15~0.2% 공약이
2011 정지원, 정지선, 국제사회의 개발재원 논의동향과 한국의 정책과제, KIEP
2011 정지원, 정지선, 국제사회의 개발재원 논의동향과 한국의 정책과제, KIEP
(Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development)
Development Cooperation Forum
UN HQ, 30 June - 1 July 2008
Development Cooperation Forum
UN HQ, 29-30 June 2010
Development Cooperation Forum
UN HQ, 5 July 2012
The Second Development Cooperation Forum (DCF) of ECOSOC was held successfully on 29 and 30 June. The level of engagement of Member States from South and North was among the salient features of this year's DCF, with a large number of Ministers, Vice-Ministers, Permanent Secretaries and Director-Generals present. Non-executive stakeholders were represented in this truly multi-stakeholder forum through the Inter-Parliamentary Union; NGOs such as CIVICUS, ActionAid, ITUC and others and the Organization United Cities and Local Governments.
The first biennial Development Cooperation Forum took place at UN Headquarters, New York, on 30 June - 1 July 2008. The goal of the Forum was to position the United Nations Economic and Social Council as a principal forum for global dialogue and policy review on the effectiveness and coherence of international development cooperation.
The 2012 UN Development Cooperation Forum (DCF) was held on 5 and 6 July at the UN headquarters in New York. It brought together policy makers, civil society organizations, Members of Parliaments, local authorities and foundations from rich and poor countries. The Forum reviewed development cooperation trends. It allowed building greater coherence among various development actors. It debated ways to improve the quality and effectiveness of development cooperation and to increase its impact on development goals.

The 2012 DCF met as development cooperation is changing. Different actors and new ways of doing things are gaining in importance. A fortnight after the Rio+20 conference, there was broad agreement that development has to be economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. This is important three years before 2015, the target date for the MDGs, when the United Nations Development Agenda for the coming years is being defined. At the same time, political uncertainty and economic hardship continue to dominate many development scenarios around the globe. Prospects for development cooperation are highly uncertain. Hard-won development gains continue to be derailed by the ongoing crises.

(“In Larger Freedom”)
(“Keeping the Promise”)
WWSD, Rio +10
Johannesburg, South Africa, 2-4 September 2002
UNCSD, Rio +20
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012,
(The Future We Want)
UNCED, Earth Summit
Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3-14 June 1992
Agenda 21
Stockholm, Sweden, 00-00 June 1972
Our Common Future
Report of Brundtland
Only One Planet
(UN Conference on the Human Environment)
(UN Conference on Environment and Development)
(World Summit on Sustainable Development(WSSD))
(United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development)
Post-Busan Interim Group(PBIG)
Global Partnership

: Working Arrangements
: Global Monitoring Framework
Source: 2012 Enna Park, Seoul ODA International Conference
PBIG was established in January 2012
- Chair +25 representatives from donors, developing countries, OECD, UN, IPU, Civil Society(India, China, Brazil as observers)

- Met 3 times(February, April, May)
Final WP-EFF meeting in June 2012 adopted
the PBIG's proposals on the Global Partnership
- Nature and mandates of the Global Partnerships
- ToRs and membership of governance structure
- Secretariat support to the Global Partnerships
- Global-level monitoring indicators and targets
Global Partnership: Mandates
Para 36(a) of the Busan outcome document
"The Global Partnership will offer "an open platform that embraces diversity, providing a forum for the exchange of knowledge and the regular review of progress"
Core functions of the Global Partnership
- Maintain and strengthen political momentum for more effective development cooperation
- Ensure accountability for implementing Busan commitments
- Facilitate knowledge exchange and sharing of lessons learned
- Support implementation of Busan commitments at the country level
: Memberships and Role of other processes
Open to all actors in development that endorse the Busan Parnership agreement
Role of regional organizations :
Role of Building Blocks :
Relations with other global fora and processes :
Support the implemntation of Busan commitments by facilitating knowledge sharing and convening constituencies
continue to exist as self standing alliances, but the GP welcomes inputs from them to inform its work and to support political dialogue
Engagement with the UN DCF, the G20 to Build synergies and substantive complemntarity
Global Partnership
Regular Ministerial Meeting
Steering Committee
OECD-UNDP Joint Secretariat
- Key forum for political dialogue and decision making with GP
- Focusing on implementation of commitments and actions agreed to in the Busan Partnership agreement
- Participating from Governments, NGOs, Private Sector, etc
- Meeting every 18-24 months
- Venue and timing of meetings are flexible
- Supporting the ministerial platform, providing the strategic leadership, coordination and oversight for the GP
- 3 Co-chairs + 15 members
- Meeting every 6-12 months or more frequently as required
Global Partnership
Key Principle: "Global Light, Country Focused"
10 Global Monitoring Indicators selected
Data Sources:
Baselines and Targets
- Developing countries' systems are strengthened and used; Aid is untied; Development cooperation is more predictable; Trensparency; Mutual accountability, etc
- Civil society; Engagement & contribution of the private sector; Gender equality & women's empowerment, etc
2010 as the baseline year, 2015 as the target year
Existing int'l source + Collected at country level
Source: 2012 Enna Park, Seoul ODA International Conference
Source: 2012 Enna Park, Seoul ODA International Conference
Source: 2012 Enna Park, Seoul ODA International Conference
Source: 2012 Enna Park, Seoul ODA International Conference
(Global Partnership
for Effective Development Co-operation)
Environmental Sustainability
Peace and
Human security
Inclusive human
Frame Work
Protecting biodiversity
Stable climate
Universal access to clean
water and sanitation
Freedom from violence,
conflict and abuse
Resilience to natural
Conflict-free access to
natural resources
Adequate nutrition for all
Quality education for all
Reduced mortality and
Adequate social protection
Eradicating income
poverty and hunger
Reducing inequalities
Ensuring decent work and
Productive employment
Human rights
Sustainable use of natural
resources(climate, oceans,
biodiversity) and management of
Managing disaster risk and
improving disaster response
Democratic and coherent global
governance mechanisms
Good governance practices based
on the rule of law
Human right protection
Sustainable food and nutrition security
Universal access to quality health care
Universal access to quality education
Inclusive social protection systems
Managing demographic dynamics
Regulating international migration
Fair and stable global trading system
Adequate financing for development 
and stable financial system
Affordable access to technology and 
Providing sustainable energy for all
Coherent macroeconomic and 
development policies supportive of 
inclusive and green growth
UN System on the post‐2015 UN development agenda
"We Can Make The Future We Want"
(Development Cooperation Forum)
As part of the high-level segment of ECOSOC, the launch of the Development Cooperation Forum was marked by a half-day official event on 5 July 2007.
Asia Pacific Regional FORUM
On 21-22 October 2008 in Bangkok
On 12-13 November 2009 in Vienna
On 22 April 2010
On 3-4 June 2010 in Helsinki
Mali High-level Symposium
Istanbul (LDC-IV)
On 5-6 May 2011
On12 May 2011
Luxembourg High-level Symposium
On 18-19 October 2011
Expert Group Meeting
On 17 October 2011
Busan Special Event
On 29 November 2011
On 9 February 2012
Dialogue on Changing Development Context
Dialogue on Private Philanthropic Organizations
On 27 February 2012
Australia High-level Symposium
On 14-15 May 2012
Rio+20 Side Event
On 21 June 2012
Vienna Symposiums
On 19-20 April 2007
On 19-20 January 2008
On 6 March 2008
On 00 Month 2008
As part of the high-level segment of ECOSOC, the launch of the Development Cooperation Forum was marked by a half-day official event on 5 July 2007.
The 2010 DCF was structured around the following themes:
1.Promoting greater coherence: how can all policies be geared towards development goals?
2.Accountable and transparent development cooperation: how can we build more equal partnerships?
3.The role of various forms of cooperation including South-South and triangular cooperation.
4.Impact of multiple crises: Allocating resources among competing needs; and
5.Achieving the MDGs by 2015: an agenda for more and improved development cooperation."
The 2012 DCF provided an opportunity to:
1. Encourage development cooperation actors to live up to promises made on aid quantity, quality and effectiveness.
2. Provide a platform for all actors to share lessons learned and good practices for making effective use of development cooperation to achieve the MDGs.
3. Produce agreement on how to advance sustainable development through development cooperation.
4. Promote coherence of development cooperation through country-led, innovative partnerships within and between governments and with non-state actors.
5. Promote people-centred accountability for better development results and further develop the role of the DCF and other UN bodies to promote coherence and accountability.
2011 Mali High-level Symposium on “Gearing development cooperation towards the MDGs: Effectiveness and Results”
1. How best aid can achieve development results in a cost-effective manner and how this should be measured;
2. How broad-based country ownership can best ensure that these results are sustainable in different country contexts;
3. Proposals for a development cooperation accountability framework between LDCs and their donors, in light of planned monitoring and follow-up to LDC-IV;
4. Proposals for improving country-level mutual accountability between developing countries, donors and stakeholders;
5. Measures to enhance accountability for development results produced by aid to education.

The Mali symposium marked the first milestone in preparing for the 2012 DCF. It is taking place when prospects for global economic recovery remain uncertain, and the world’s poorest citizens continue to suffer from delays in reaching the MDGs. The global economic crisis is dramatically reducing commitments by OECD donors, and leading them to stress the need for greater results from aid. However, sustainable results can be achieved only through developing country leadership, and mutual accountability between donors and developing countries - so that both sides are fully held to account for the results of aid.

The Mali Symposium provided high-level participants and practitioners from all stakeholder groups an opportunity to debate how to scale up tested solutions to improve development results by improving the quality of aid, through interactive dialogue among and within different groups.
key messages
1. The “current political economy” and rising public anger countries were threatening aid flows. It was imperative that these limited resources should be used in more effective manner.
2. Aid should aim to mobilize the kind of financial flows that have the greatest impact on the achievement of MDGs and other internationally agreed development goals.
3. Representatives of LDCs underscored that aid to their countries must, as a priority, help mobilize FDI and other resources to bolster the productive sector. However, some of the NGOs were of the view that aid had maximum impact when it is used to support social programmes such as health and education.
4. It was reiterated that recipient countries should decide about the deployment of aid resources.

2011 Luxembourg High-level Symposium on “Working together to increase the development impact of aid”
On 18 and 19 October 2011, the second High-Level Symposium in preparation for the 2012 United Nations Development Cooperation Forum (DCF) was held in Luxembourg.

The Symposium was hosted and organized by Luxembourg in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). It provided the opportunity for high-level representatives and senior experts in development cooperation and aid management to exchange views and share lessons learned. Participants came from national and local governments, parliaments, non-governmental organizations and other civil society organizations, philanthropic foundations and the private sector.

The overall goal of the Symposium is to reflect on how to best help developing countries maximize the impact of aid. It looked at how Official Development Assistance (ODA) can enable developing countries to mobilize investment and other types of development finance, such as trade and domestic revenues to build their productive capacity and combat poverty.

To work towards greater independence from aid in the long term, more and better aid, backed by policies which deliver sustainable development results – including for the poorest and most vulnerable groups of society - is needed in the short and medium term. Also important is to mobilize a greater effort to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to mobilize domestic resources and to attract private foreign direct investment (FDI), especially in those countries with the least capacity to attract private direct investment.

The event discussed
The event discussed the implications of the sustainable development agenda for international development cooperation. It also debated the challenges and opportunities for donor and programme countries arising from the concept of sustainable development. Also, the potential impact of this concept on aid quantity, quality and allocation between countries, regions and sectors was discussed. Participants came from developing and developed countries, civil society, parliamentarians, and international organizations.
DCF Advisory Group Special Event on “Rethinking Development: Towards a New Sustainable Development Architecture”.
Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness
The Advisory Group on the Development Cooperation Forum organized a Special Event on “Rethinking Development: Towards a New Sustainable Development Architecture”. The meeting was held in preparation for the 2012 DCF and to contribute to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio 20). It took place on 29 November 2011 on the margins of the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Republic of Korea.
Special Policy Dialogue for the 2012 DCF on: “Private philanthropic organizations in international development cooperation: New opportunities and specific challenges”
Private philanthropic organizations have become in a very short period of time a key source of development finance. They complement flows from other providers and play a vital role in meeting needs in critical sectors, such as health and education. There is need to better understand the role they can play in international development cooperation and their impact on development results. The MDG Summit in 2010 recognized that and called on foundations to enhance their role in supporting national development efforts and the achievement of the MDGs.
Key questions
The objective of the event is to examine the implications of Rio+20 for the future of development cooperation. It will identify lessons learned and best practices where countries at different stages of development have integrated sustainable development into decision-making principles, processes and institutional mechanisms related to development cooperation.
DCF Side Event at Rio+20 Conference on “The Future We Want: The Role of Development Cooperation in Getting Us There”
21 June 2012, 15:00-16:30, T9, Riocentro Convention Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Achieving sustainable development requires a major rethink of the way development cooperation is pursued. Under the theme “The Future We Want: The Role of Development Cooperation in Getting Us There,” this side event presents an opportunity to discuss how development cooperation can best support the transition towards sustainable development from a country-level perspective.

The side event is jointly organized by the ECOSOC President, the Government of Australia and the United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs. It builds on key policy messages identified at the DCF High-Level Symposium on “Shaping a sustainable future – Partners in Development Cooperation,” which will be held on 14 and 15 May 2012 in Brisbane, Australia.
1. How can development cooperation support countries at different stages of development in implementing policies built on the three pillars of sustainable development?

2. How can donor countries better gear their development cooperation towards the promotion of sustainable development? How can South-South cooperation and support from non-executive actors such as the civil society, the private sector and foundations play serve as a catalyst in putting the development on a more sustainable footing.

3. What are the implications for the future of development cooperation of putting sustainable development at the heart of a post 2015 UN Development Agenda?

Special Event at the Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV)
The Fourth Conference on Least Developed Countries in Istanbul (LDC-IV) provided a unique opportunity to review how the development concerns of Least Developed Countries and MDG challenges can be better met by increasing aid, improving its quality and strengthening mutual accountability frameworks for development results.

This special event aimed to reflect on how mutual accountability between LDCs and their donors on aid can contribute to the implementation of international commitments, including those contained in the draft Istanbul Programme of Action. It builds on the premise that aid to LDCs is of lower quality than to other recipients. The intention was not to propose a new framework but rather to build on existing frameworks, notably the upcoming Istanbul Programme of Action for LDCs.
1. How do the structural factors characterizing LDCs influence the quality of aid provided to these countries?
2. Building on the Brussels Programme of Action and the Istanbul conference, which aspects of aid quality are the most important ones for LDCs?
3. How can systems ensuring mutual accountability between LDCs and their donors at country level be improved so that they better address the concerns of LDCs on aid quantity and aid quality? How can mutual accountability mechanisms support greater development results? What are good practices in this regard?
4. What should be the key elements and targets of a framework for mutual accountability on aid for LDCs?
5. How could such a framework be used to contribute to the follow-up processes to Istanbul?
The event discussed
Expert Group Meeting on "Reinforcing international mutual accountability"
The objective of this expert group meeting was to identify recommendations to reinforce international mutual accountability (MA) mechanisms to ensure all actors live up to past aid commitments.
It addressed in particular four deficits:
1. Representation of all relevant actors in planning and implementation to ensure legitimacy and ownership;
2. Breadth and relevance of information and evidence base for country-level users;
3. Impact on behaviour of individual providers and other stakeholders at country level; and
4. Coordination among mechanisms and linkages to national level mechanisms.

ECOSOC Preparatory Meeting for the 2012 DCF on: “The Changing Context of Development: What does it mean for Cooperation and Global Partnership”
The global partnership for development agreed at major United Nations conferences is the centrepiece of international development cooperation. However, in a changing development landscape, the global partnership itself is evolving as new players with new approaches to development cooperation and new aid modalities are making an increasingly important contribution to development.

On 9 February 2012, ECOSOC will hold a one-day meeting at New York Headquarters (Conference Room 7 North Lawn Building) on “The Changing Context of Development: What does it mean for Cooperation and Global Partnership”. The meeting is held in preparation for the 2012 UN Development Cooperation Forum (DCF). It will examine key development cooperation trends that have emerged in recent years and how they are shaping the future of development cooperation and the institutional arrangements that govern this cooperation. Presentations by panellists will be followed by an interactive discussion.

The morning panel on “New dynamics of development cooperation: challenges and opportunities” will discuss
The afternoon panel on will focus on “Gearing development cooperation towards sustainable development”
The morning panel on “Comparative advantages and good practices of private philanthropic organizations in achieving development results” will discuss
The afternoon panel on “Maximizing development impact through partnerships” will discuss the following questions:
1. What are the most promising partnerships for private philanthropic organizations? What lessons can be learned from good practices thus far?
2. Is there good collaboration between private philanthropic organizations and national governments in the effort to achieve agreed national and international development goals?
3. What are incentives or possible concerns for private philanthropic organizations to engage more broadly in international dialogue on development cooperation?
1. What are main comparative advantages of development cooperation by philanthropic organizations (e.g. in terms of business-like practices, speed and cost of delivery, innovation and risk taking, targeted delivery etc.)?
2. What are the main development cooperation modalities used by these organizations (e.g. project support and technical cooperation through civil society, scholarships, educational support funding, etc.)?
3. What is the impact and results of this type of cooperation?
4. What are challenges private philanthropic organizations face in the way they do business?
1. How can aid best serve as a catalyst for sustainable and pro-poor development results and MDG achievement? How should aid be allocated between countries and sectors? How can the phenomenon of aid orphans be addressed?
2. How can new providers with new approaches to development cooperation be effectively engaged in promoting the development of poor countries?
3. What role should the DCF play in spurring greater impact and coherence in international development cooperation? 4. How should it respond to the invitation to play a role in consulting on the implementation of agreements reached in Busan?
1. What are the implications of a transitioning towards a green economy for countries at different stages of development? Is this trend likely to further exacerbate divisions between donor orphans and donor darlings or can it help ameliorate the situation?
2. How can the lessons learned and principles on aid effectiveness and effective development cooperation be used in guiding development cooperation for sustainable development?
3. What role can the DCF play in rethinking the new architecture for development cooperation that is responsive to the challenges of sustainable development?

2012 Australia High-level Symposium on "Shaping a Sustainable Future - Partners in Development Cooperation"
The UN High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability recently reaffirmed that the current global development model is unsustainable. The report, Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A Future Worth Choosing, shows that by 2030 the world will need at least 50 per cent more food, 45 per cent more energy and 30 per cent more water. “Business as usual” is no longer an option. Development cooperation can play a vital role in helping countries to build policies on the three pillars of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental.

The Australia High-Level Symposium will look at the implications for development cooperation of the transition towards sustainable development and how it can contribute to alleviating poverty.

The DCF is a multi-stakeholder forum, convened by the UN Economic and Social Council to look at the economic, social and environmental dimensions of development cooperation. The DCF is in a unique position to assist countries to bring the different strands together. The outcomes of the DCF will feed into Rio+20 and post-2015 UN development agenda discussions.

This third preparatory symposium for the 2012 DCF will explore opportunities, challenges and lessons learned for effective sustainable development; discuss opportunities for innovative finance and effective partnerships, with a particular focus on leveraging the private sector, the future for South-South and triangular cooperation; and examine the role of sustainable development in the post-2015 framework.

The Symposium will bring together high-level representatives and senior experts in development cooperation and sustainable development from governments, parliaments, multilateral and civil society organisations, philanthropic foundations and the private sector. The Symposium aims to facilitate an informal and interactive dialogue among participants.

Asia Pacific Regional FORUM
To ensure a comprehensive consultative process in preparing for the 2010 DCF, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs is supporting the organization of several high-level symposiums. As the first in this series the Asia Pacific Regional Development Cooperation Forum (DCF) took place on 21-22 October 2008 in Bangkok. The forum focused on triangular and South South cooperation in the Asia Pacific region.

The meeting was co organized by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) and the UNDP Special Unit for South South Cooperation. It was organized around four segments and common plenary sessions with presentations, country-based case studies and discussions, addressing among others the following questions: Can lessons learnt in Asia on triangular and South South development cooperation apply to other regions? How to support the development of voluntary systems in monitoring and evaluation? How to improve monitoring and data collection on South-South and triangular development cooperation? What should be the role of the United Nations System?
Focus of the Forum
The Global Preparatory Meeting for the 2010 High-level Segment of ECOSOC served as an opportunity to discuss the expectations for the second biennial DCF. The event began with a briefing on the preparations for the forum as well as an update on the outcome of the High-level Symposium held in Vienna on 12-13 November 2009 on “Accountable and Transparent Development Cooperation: Towards a More Inclusive Framework”. Participants were also informed on the upcoming Helsinki High-level Symposium to be held on 3-4 June 2010 on the theme of “Coherent Development Cooperation: Maximizing Impact in a Changing Environment”.

1.How can the DCF contribute to the MDG Summit in September 2010?
2.Can the DCF provide a platform for providers and recipient countries to hold each other accountable for their respective commitments?
3.How can the DCF move forward the debate on policy coherence?
4.Should the DCF take place annually?
The first High-level Symposium to prepare for the 2010 DCF, organized by UN/DESA jointly with the Government of Austria, took place in Vienna on 12-13 November 2009. As a true multi-stakeholder event, the Vienna Symposium on “Accountable and Transparent Development Cooperation: Towards a More Inclusive Framework” brought together Southern and Northern policy-makers to identify key challenges in making mutual accountability mechanisms more effective at the global and at the country level and to discuss possible common principles in mutual accountability and aid transparency. The interactive discussions also identified steps to strengthen global and national mutual accountability mecahnisms as well as to improve information sharing and make aid more transparent. The Vienna HLS also had a first exchange of views on the upcoming work of the DCF on South-South development cooperation and policy coherence.
The discussions and key messages of the Vienna Symposium will be captured in a report to inform the ongoing consultative process and analytical preparations towards the 2010 DCF.
The second High-level Symposium to prepare for the 2010 DCF, organized by UN/DESA jointly with the Government of Finland, took place in Helsinki on 3-4 June 2010. The goal of the event has been to promote pragmatic solutions to make development cooperation more coherent and develop key messages for the upcoming 2010 United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Against the backdrop of multiple crises, it has aimed to foster discussions among a wide range of stakeholders on issues that can significantly improve the impact of development cooperation on the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs.
Furthermore, the Helsinki High-level Symposium has promoted Policy Coherence for Development to ensure synergies between development objectives and other policies. The symposium discussed the multifaceted challenges in building coherence in the range of policies affecting development. Stakeholders shared experiences on how different policies can have a significant impact, either positive or negative, on development and the MDGs.
The Helsinki High-level Symposium also highlighted the significant role of foundations, civil society and the private sector in development cooperation; discussed the positive impact that national mutual accountability mechanisms can have on effective aid delivery and development partnerships; and promoted a more concerted effort in achieving gender-related development goals. The discussions and key messages of the Helsinki Symposium have been be captured in a report to inform the ongoing consultative process and analytical work of the DCF
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