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Kara Klein

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of Termination

Ending Phase Issues: Termination
Ending a group is easier if:

Confidentiality is established
Member's feelings toward ending are shared and validated
Major Challenges in the group ending phase:

What is the first thing that comes to mind when you hear the word 'termination'?
"The action of bringing something or coming to an end"
Major Challenges in the Group Ending Phase
Depending on the type of group, if elements of termination are missing or incomplete, challenges specific to the process of ending may arise
(Ippen, Rao, Le & Dwyer, 2000; Keyton, 1993; Toseland & Rivas, 2005)

-Humanistic Model:
- separating and reflecting on accomplishments and achievements
- negative aspects of termination must be framed in a positive manner
- termination: a stage of growth and part of an ongoing journey
- facilitator should never deny termination
- both group members and facilitators must cope with feelings surrounding termination
- helpful for facilitator to share their own feelings and experiences of termination
What Does Transformation Look Like?
Purposeful and Positive Termination
Making Termination
A Positive Experience
Examining the impact and effects of the group on each member

Acknowledging the feelings triggered by departure

Creating closure on the group experiences

Receiving feedback and exploring new learning opportunities and areas for growth
Role of the Facilitator
Reinforcing and reflecting on the progress, success and growth of the group

Helping group members successfully incorporate knowledge and practices learned in the group in their daily lives

Assisting participants in preparing for challenges that may arise after the group has ended

Reflect, process, and work through the group's negative feelings surrounding termination
group endings have the potential to be a
, and


positive endings can be achieved by facilitators and group members
Humanistic Model:

Ending phase is centered around separating and reflecting on accomplishments and achievements.

Termination as a stage of growth and part of an ongoing journey
Negative aspects of termination must be framed in a positive manner
Positive Aspects that Can be Utilized Include:
deny termination

Help group cope with feelings surrounding termination

Share their own experiences of termination
Facilitators Can Create a Positive Experience By:
Helping clients resolve any ongoing challenges or "unfinished business"

Educate participants on additional resources and referrals in the community that can assist them

Empower group members and foster their confidence and self-worth in navigating their lives without the group

Provide an opportunity for members to receive closure from one another and the group
Glassman, U. (2009). Stage Themes of Group Development. In Groupwork: A Humanistic and Skills Building Approach(2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 84). Los Angeles: Sage.
Putting closure on the experience

Examining the impact of the group on each group member

Acknowledging the feelings triggered by departure

Giving and receiving feedback about the group experience and each member's role in it.

Completing any unfinished business.

Exploring ways to carry on the learning the group has offered.
typically termination is described as the final stage

literature suggests negative effects when termination is delayed

is a new stage of group development
A New Stage of Group Development
Consideration for Facilitators

facilitator must be prepared to lead the group in an
Role of the Facilitator in Transformation
Group member
Transformation To:
Social Action Groups
Mutual Aid Network
Large Formal Organizations
Social Group Coalitions
Independent Dyads and Triads
Time Limited Follow-Up Sessions
Therapeutic Support Groups
Do You Have a

Ending a group often presents the most challenges of any phase and may be because there is a greater coutnertransference than during the other phaes

Successful group endings are critical in fulfilling the purpose of te group by enabling individuals to take th toolds leared in the group and replicate them outselide the group with others that may offer the same saftey or understanding

Conversely, it is critical in ensuring that emotionally
The Power of Purposeful Sessional Endings in Each Group Encounter
Our Article:
Martin Birnbaum and AndrewCicchetti
The Power of Purposeful Sessional Endings in Each Group Encounter
allows for reflection
transitions between sessions
sense of accomplishment
How do you think
ending each individual session can benefit your final termination as a group?
Ending a group often presents the most challenges of any phase and may be because there is greater counter transference than during other phases
(Brandler & Roman, 2012)
Successful group endings are critical in fulfilling the purpose of the group by enabling individuals to take the tools learned in the group and replicate them outside the group with others that may not offer the same safety or understanding
(Brandler & Roman, 2012).
Conversely, it is critical in ensuring that emotionally hot interpersonal encounters are not carried over from the group to other settings i.e. the workplace
(Keyton, 1993)
Unaddressed challenges in prior stages of development

Insufficient notice of indecision of when the group will end

Different termination points for various members

Termination of the group leader

Termination of an open ended group
Insufficient preparation for when ending will take place
Support is not provided in saying goodbye and coping through ending
Rushed termination phase
Makes it painful for group and facilitator
Relapse prevention for therapeutic groups is not addressed
Discussion on continued support, return to the group, or continued care is omitted
Feelings (abandonment, anger or sadness) are repressed or not dealt with
Depending on the type of group, if elements of termination are missing or incomplete, challenges specific to the process of ending may arise
Steps such as review of gains, tools and skills learned in group or from others are skipped
In the review of skills, gains are attributed to the leader rather than individual ownership
Challenges in the Termination Stage of Group Work May Stem From
Mixed Feelings: Excitement Vs. Sadness
Individual challenges
Separation anxiety
Sense of grief
Loss of support and safe place
Ritualization of goodbyes, where support from other individuals may be promised but never actualized
Process Challenges
Part 1

Practice Standards:

Develop plans for continuation of service or referral of members as needed

Share worker's ending feelings with members
Part 2
Practice Standards:
Members are capable of change and helping one another

Share worker's ending feelings with members

Assist members in sharing their feelings about endings with one another

Help members identify gains they have made and changes that have resulted from from their participation in the group

Help members honestly reflect and evaluate their work together

Individual behaviors representing the challenges of termination are often seen as alternating between
and may include

Individual struggles may add to ambivalence experienced by the group as a whole:
Excessive lateness or absence
Devaluation of the group vs. investment and rapid gains
Early termination vs. holding on
Regression to earlier behaviors such as loss of gains and reversion to the beginning stage
Facilitator behaviors or reactions may create challenges in the termination phase:
Insufficient planning for the ending phase
Facilitator projects his/her own feelings
Re-experiencing own loss or feelings of abandonment
Facilitator gets lost in a group's resistance
Collusion with members on not addressing termination issues
Over-attentiveness, over attachment, or insufficient emotional Independence
Lack of appropriate boundaries:
relying on clients for socialization
Ambivalence around therapeutic effectiveness or client success outside of the group
New experience!
Evaluation is a
tool. Why is it important?

clarifying service users needs

improving quality of services

positive impact on service users

need to demonstrate programs impact for funding opportunities

evidence based practice is an ethical obligation
Why is Evaluation Difficult?
Takes time and effort

Some workers are untrained in research and evaluation skills

Difficult to apply outcomes to future work
Considerations: Politics of Evaluation
Termination with different types of groups
Different groups can approach termination in their own unique fashion
The group as a whole (lead by the facilitator) determines the termination process
Socialization Groups
Develop members competence in areas of common need
Can be labeled as a psych-social educational group
Help members better understand and cope with their life situations
Therapy and Counseling Groups
Change or improve some aspects in psych-social functioning
Support and Self-help Groups
Control what is believed to be an undesirable behavior through peer support and mutual aid

Task Groups
Major purpose of completing a particular task
Educational Groups
According to the text by Toseland and Rivas (2012); the primary purpose of educational groups is to help the members learn new information and skills
Termination could include all members reflecting back on what they have learned and how they will use the new knowledge gained in their daily lives and if they could even teach this new knowledge to others: inductive thinking
How to End a Group Successfully!
Example: Termination of Group Counseling
Reinforcing the progress that was made during the course of the group

Offering suggestions to the group members about ways in which they can successfully incorporate what they have learned into their daily lives

Helping group participants brainstorm and anticipate problems that may arise when they group has concluded

Allowing time for constructive feedback from group members
This includes feedback for the leader as well as all group members

Assisting participants in processing their feelings about termination and helping them resolve any unfinished business

Educating participants about additional resources that are available to them as supports once the group has ended

Making oneself available should the need for individual counseling or consultation with group members arise

Syracuse University, School of Education, 2014

Birnbaum, M.L., Ciccheti, A. (2000). The power of purposeful sessional endings in each group encounter. Social Work with Groups, 23 (3), 37-52 Retrieved from: http://journals2.scholarsportal.info.proxy.lib.uwaterloo.ca/details/01609513/v23i0003/37_t popseiege.xml

Brandler S., & Roman, C.P. (2012).
Group work: Skills and strategies for effective interventions.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2005). Substance abuse treatment: Group therapy.

Glassman, U. (2009). Stage Themes of Group Development. In Groupwork: A Humanistic and Skills Building Approach(2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 55-85). Los Angeles: Sage.

Greenfield, W., Rothman, B. (1987). Termination or transformation? Evolving beyond termination in groups. In Lassner, J., Powell, K., Finnegan, E. (Eds.), Social group Work: Competence and Values in Practice. (pp. 51–65). New York: Haworth Press. (WLU: HV45 .S615)

Ippen, C.G., Rao, S., Le, H., & Dwyer, E.V. (2000).
Manual for group cognitive-behavioral therapy of major depression.
Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Clinic, Division of Psychosocial Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital

Jacobs, E., Mason, R.L., Harvill, R., & Schimmel, C. (2011).
Group counseling: Strategies and skills.
Cengage Learning.

Keyton, J. (1993). Group Termination Completing the Study of Group Development,
Small Group Research,
24(1), 84 - 100

Kivipelto, M. & Yliruka, L. (2012). Mirror method as an approach for critical evaluation in social work. Critical Social Work, 2012 Vol. 13, No. 2, 101-118. Retrieved from: http://www1.uwindsor.ca/criticalsocialwork/system/files/Kivipelto_Yliruka.pdf

Pollio D.E. (2006). The art of evidenced based practice. Research on Social Work Practice, Vol. 16 No. 2, March 2006. Retrieved from: http://humanservices.ucdavis.edu/academy/pdf/resource%20library%20EBP%201.pdf

Termination Group Counseling (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://soe.syr.edu/academic/counseling_and_human_services/modules/Termination/terminating_group_counseling.aspx

Toseland, R., & Rivas, R. (2012). Introduction. In An introduction to group work practice (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Class Activity!
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