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Transcript of MOCK EXAM
Ensure you read carefully. Rule of thumb - 10 mins planning, 45 mins writing, 5 mins checking. No, unlike GCSE you don't get marks for 'workings out' but if seriously pushed for time ensure you at least bullet point your main statements.
You need to be able to support your statements. eg. Popular culture is very influential vs. As John has noted Popular Culture is disseminated globally.
If I was you - I would ensure that I really know
of the key topics. Secondary readings, ensure you have seen the film/products etc. Don't just do two you may be in trouble if one of the topics does not emerge:
Creation (both government led and individual/economic led etc. )
Ensure you have items you can talk about with referlce to the topics. ie. films, tv, music etc.
power: ability to affect/control others and can be done via coercion/payment/force or
"However, soft power is a descriptive rather than a normative concept. Like any form of power, it can be wielded for good or bad purposes....It is not necessarily better to twist minds than to twist arms." )Nye, 2012)
Success in terms of outcomes is more in the control of the subject than is often the case with hard power. For example Hero was a huge global hit, The Promise was a huge flop.
It take TIME. You can invade a country in days but soft power takes far longer to develop and very hard to maintain (eg. Korean Soft Power now is far less than in the late 1990s)
"Third, the instruments of soft power are not fully under the control of governments. While governments control policy, culture and values are embedded in civil societies".
"Soft power depends upon
and when governments are perceived as manipulative and information is seen as propaganda, credibility is destroyed. Governments often underestimate the importance of pull rather than push in soft power interactions". (Nye 2012).
Problems with Soft Power as part of a government strategy
Zhang Yimou directed
Very successful and excellent PR for PRC
Human Rights - evictions, arrests, heavy hand in areas such as Tibet in the run up.
Rather than improving human rights, the Beijing Games’ success “helped the regime to become more confident to do things its own way,” said Xu Guoqi in “Olympic Dreams: China and Sports, 1895-2008.”
MOCK EXAM (45 mins):
I will mark and get comments to you by next Friday.
Choose 1 question:
1. What is the relationship between music and youth or alternative cultures? Use one example from the module.
2. What are the negatives and positives of cultural appropriation?
3. How has PRC attempted to use cinema to develop soft power?
The best propaganda is not propaganda
Soft power is based three interlinked elements:
Culture (specifically culture which is attractive to others)
Political values (when it lives up to them at home and abroad). Chinese module of development has got purchase in developing nations more than in establish democracies.
Foreign policies (legitimate and having moral authority). This raises the question on whether countries action related to international events can erode soft power. eg. making 16 year old TWICE singer apologize publically did this in fact harm Chinese soft power? When the booksellers in Hong Kong went missing (and now have been paraded on TV in PRC) does that erode the engagement people have with the cinema of PRC?
Chinese soft power may work well in authoritarian nations but perhaps less so in democracies.
BBC poll of 28 countries in 2010 showed a net positive image of China only in Pakistan and Africa, while in Asia, the Americas and Europe the modal opinion was neutral to poor.
Soft Power and Hard Power are indivisibly in many places.
In his keynote speech to the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) on 15 October 2007, President Hu Jintao stated that the CPC must ‘enhance culture as part of the soft power of our country . . . a factor of growing significance in the competition in overall national strength.’
Keep calm. Although exams are important they will not be the defining moment in your life...trust me.
I am about all next week so come and ask if you have questions/worries/need a cry (I am less good with that but can offer tissues).
I won't be in my office Friday (I forgot I am in Oxford speaking) but will be Tuesday in the 'screening slot' or just email me
Good Luck and have a nice summer!
IF you fail (not saying you will)
There will be a resit in August. Different questions, same format, and I believe you have to pay for resits here.